Figure 2: Injury protocols for creating model mice. Time course of carotid artery ligation model (a). Immediately and at six and 13 days after carotid ligation, the left cardiac ventricles of mice were injected with either HBSS (150 μL) or hMSCs (1 × 106 in 150 μL of HBSS) and the mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 28 days. Neointimal hyperplasia continued to increase for up to 28 days after ligation. Protocol for G-CSF administration model (b). Mice received daily subcutaneous injections of saline or G-CSF (300 μg/kg) for five days after vascular injury. Neointimal proliferation was induced by G-CSF through early excessive inflammation and bone marrow cell mobilization.