Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 962903, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/962903
Review Article

Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

1Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering (FBME), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Building VO1, Block A, Level 5, Room 27, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FKM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 16 July 2014; Accepted 11 August 2014; Published 8 September 2014

Academic Editor: Michael Kalafatis

Copyright © 2014 Radha S. P. Malon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. K. M. Aps and L. C. Martens, “Review: the physiology of saliva and transfer of drugs into saliva,” Forensic Science International, vol. 150, no. 2-3, pp. 119–131, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Chiappin, G. Antonelli, R. Gatti, and E. F. de Palo, “Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 383, no. 1-2, pp. 30–40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. Kaufman and I. B. Lamster, “The diagnostic applications of saliva—a review,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 197–212, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. G. Guilbault, G. Palleschi, and G. Lubrano, “Non-invasive biosensors in clinical analysis,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp. 379–392, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. Shetty and M. Yamaguchi, “Salivary biosensors for screening trauma-related psychopathology,” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 269–278, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. H. Lee and D. T. Wong, “Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases,” The American Journal of Dentistry, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 241–248, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. L. Hodinka, T. Nagashunmugam, and D. Malamud, “Detection of human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in oral fluids,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 419–426, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. F. Robles, V. Shetty, C. M. Zigler et al., “The feasibility of ambulatory biosensor measurement of salivary alpha amylase: relationships with self-reported and naturalistic psychological stress,” Biological Psychology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Micheli, D. Moscone, and G. Palleschi, Biosensors for Medical Applications, Elsevier Science, 2012.
  10. M.-S. Soares, M.-M. Batista-Filho, M.-J. Pimentel, I.-A. Passos, and E. Chimenos-Küstner, “Determination of salivary glucose in healthy adults,” Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. e510–e513, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Azizi and A. Modaberi, “The correlation of blood glucose with salivary glucose level in diabetic patients,” Journal of Islamic Dental Association of Iran, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 274–277, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  12. L. S. Vagish Kumar, “Salivary glucose levels and its correlation with serum glucose and glycemic status in diabetics,” Cukurova Medical Journal, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 7–18, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Aydin, “A comparison of ghrelin, glucose, alpha-amylase and protein levels in saliva from diabetics,” Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Carda, N. Mosquera-Lloreda, L. Salom, M. E. G. de Ferraris, and A. Peydró, “Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients,” Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. E309–E314, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. S. Panchbhai, S. S. Degwekar, and R. R. Bhowte, “Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India,” Journal of Oral Science, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 359–368, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Sashikumar and R. Kannan, “Salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type II diabetics,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 706–711, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. C. U. Vasconcelos, M. S. M. Soares, P. C. Almeida, and T. C. Soares, “Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients,” Journal of Oral Science, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 293–298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Brill and B. O. Krasse, “The passage of tissue fluid into the clinically healthy gingival pocket,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 233–245, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Yamaguchi, R. Takada, S. Kambe et al., “Evaluation of time-course changes of gingival crevicular fluid glucose levels in diabetics,” Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Gaikwad, V. Jadhav, A. Gurav, A. R. Shete, and H. M. Dearda, “Screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood with the help of a selfmonitoring device,” Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 37–40, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Gupta, N. Gupta, N. Jain, R. Garg, G. Atreja, and S. S. Walia, “Development of noninvasive procedure for monitoring blood glucose level using gingival crevicular bleeding,” Stomatoloski Glasnik Srbije, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 124–128, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  22. H. Kaur, B. Singh, and A. Sharma, “Assessment of blood glucose using gingival crevicular blood in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a chair side method,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 3066–3069, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  23. N. Shetty, R. Shankarapillai, L. K. Mathur, B. Manohar, A. Mathur, and M. Jain, “Gingival crevicular blood: as a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics,” Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 472–477, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. M. Strauss, A. J. Wheeler, S. L. Russell et al., “The potential use of gingival crevicular blood for measuring glucose to screen for diabetes: an examination based on characteristics of the blood collection site,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 907–914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Beikler, A. Kuczek, G. Petersilka, and T. F. Flemmig, “In-dental-office screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 216–218, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. S. Khader, B. N. Al-Zu'bi, A. Judeh, and M. Rayyan, “Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood,” International Journal of Dental Hygiene, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 179–182, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Sarlati, E. Pakmehr, K. Khoshru, and N. Akhondi, “Gingival crevicular blood for assessment of blood glucose levels,” Journal of Periodontology & Implant Dentistry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. K. Suneetha and T. Rambabu, “Gingival crevicular blood glucose assessment as a chairside test for diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis: a clinical study,” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 665–666, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. D. C. Klonoff, “Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 433–437, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. C. Clark Jr. and C. Lyons, “Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiovascular surgery,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 102, pp. 29–45, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Yamaguchi, M. Mitsumori, and Y. Kano, “Noninvasively measuring blood glucose using saliva,” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 59–63, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Mitsumori, M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kano, “New approach to noninvasive measurement of blood glucose using saliva analyzing system,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 4, pp. 1767–1770, Hong Kong, China, November 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Liying, R. Lijie, C. Qinghua, and C. Guangzhao, “Glucose biosensors of anthropic saliva,” Micronanoelectronic Technology, vol. 12, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Yamaguchi, S. Kambe, K. Naitoh, T. Kamei, and H. Yoshida, “Gingival crevicular fluid-collecting devices for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring,” in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society EMBS/BMES Conference, IEEE Xplore, 2002.
  35. M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kawabata, S. Kambe et al., “Non-invasive monitoring of gingival crevicular fluid for estimation of blood glucose level,” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Ballesta Claver, M. C. Valencia Mirón, and L. F. Capitán-Vallvey, “Disposable electrochemiluminescent biosensor for lactate determination in saliva,” Analyst, vol. 134, no. 7, pp. 1423–1432, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. S. Ching and P. Connolly, “Simulataneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 211–223, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. G. J. Schabmueller, D. Loppow, G. Piechotta, B. Schütze, J. Albers, and R. Hintsche, “Micromachined sensor for lactate monitoring in saliva,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1770–1776, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. Svedahl and B. R. MacIntosh, “Anaerobic threshold: the concept and methods of measurement,” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 299–323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Ohkuwa, H. Itoh, Y. Yamazaki, and Y. Sato, “Salivary and blood lactate after supramaximal exercise in sprinters and long-distance runners,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 285–290, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. V. T. Santos, A. L. R. Almeida, E. C. Caperuto, E. Martins Jr., and L. F. B. P. Costa Rosa, “Effects of a 30-km race upon salivary lactate correlation with blood lactate,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 114–117, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Palleschi, M. H. Faridnia, G. J. Lubrano, and G. G. Guilbault, “Determination of lactate in human saliva with an electrochemical enzyme probe,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 245, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Piechotta, J. Albers, and R. Hintsche, “Novel micromachined silicon sensor for continuous glucose monitoring,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 802–808, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Kim, G. Valdes-Ramirez, A. J. Bandodkar et al., “Non-invasive mouthguard biosensor for continuous salivary monitoring of metabolites,” Analyst, vol. 139, pp. 1632–1636, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. R. S. Malon, K. Y. Chua, D. H. Wicaksono, and E. P. Córcoles, “Cotton fabric-based electrochemical device for lactate measurement in saliva,” Analyst, vol. 139, no. 12, pp. 3009–3016, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  46. V. Savica, L. Calò, D. Santoro, P. Monardo, A. Granata, and G. Bellinghieri, “Salivary phosphate secretion in chronic kidney disease,” Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 87–90, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. Savica, L. A. Calò, P. Monardo et al., “Salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum reduces hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 639–644, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. M. Zheng, K. C. Lu, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Hsu, and Y. F. Lin, “Association of serum phosphate and related factors in ESRD-related vascular calcification,” International Journal of Nephrology, vol. 2011, Article ID 939613, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. M. J. Larsen and E. I. F. Pearce, “Saturation of human saliva with respect to calcium salts,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 317–322, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Ben-Aryeh, S. Filmar, D. Gutman, R. Szargel, and E. Paldi, “Salivary phosphate as an indicator of ovulation,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 871–874, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Alagendran, G. Archunan, E. O. B. Armando, and R. G. Guzman, “Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during normal menstrual cycle with special reference to ovulation,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1066–1072, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. T. Law Al and S. B. Adeloju, “Progress and recent advances in phosphate sensors: a review,” Talanta, vol. 114, pp. 191–203, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. C. H. Kwan, H. F. Leung, P. Y. T. Hon, H. C. F. Cheung, K. Hirota, and R. Renneberg, “Amperometric biosensor for determining human salivary phosphate,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 343, no. 2, pp. 263–267, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. U. M. Nater and N. Rohleder, “Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: current state of research,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 486–496, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. A. Scannapieco, G. Torres, and M. J. Levine, “Salivary α-amylase: role in dental plaque and caries formation,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3-4, pp. 301–307, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. A. Hodgson and S. Andersen, “The clinical efficacy of reflexology in nursing home residents with dementia,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 269–275, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. S. Kalman, S. Feldman, R. Feldman, H. I. Schwartz, D. R. Krieger, and R. Garrison, “Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, article 11, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Calvo, J. L. Chicharro, F. Bandrés et al., “Anaerobic threshold determination with analysis of salivary amylase,” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 553–561, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Shirasaki, H. Fujii, M. Takahashi et al., “Correlation between salivary α-amylase activity and pain scale in patients with chronic pain,” Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 120–123, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. Seugnet, J. Boero, L. Gottschalk, S. P. Duntley, and P. J. Shaw, “Identification of a biomarker for sleep drive in flies and humans,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 52, pp. 19913–19918, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. U. M. Nater, N. Rohleder, J. Gaab et al., “Human salivary alpha-amylase reactivity in a psychosocial stress paradigm,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 333–342, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Yamaguchi, M. Kanemaru, T. Kanemori, and Y. Mizuno, “Flow-injection-type biosensor system for salivary amylase activity,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 18, no. 5-6, pp. 835–840, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. Zajoncová, M. Jílek, V. Beranová, and P. Pec, “A biosensor for the determination of amylase activity,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 240–245, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. V. Shetty, C. Zigler, T. F. Robles, D. Elashoff, and M. Yamaguchi, “Developmental validation of a point-of-care, salivary α-amylase biosensor,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 193–199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Yamaguchi, M. Deguchi, J. Wakasugi et al., “Hand-held monitor of sympathetic nervous system using salivary amylase activity and its validation by driver fatigue assessment,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1007–1014, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Yamaguchi, T. Kanemori, M. Kanemaru, N. Takai, Y. Mizuno, and H. Yoshida, “Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 491–497, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Yamaguchi, M. Deguchi, and J. Wakasugi, “Flat-chip microanalytical enzyme sensor for salivary amylase activity,” Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 295–300, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. O. Aluoch, O. A. Sadik, and G. Bedi, “Development of an oral biosensor for salivary amylase using a monodispersed silver for signal amplification,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 340, no. 1, pp. 136–144, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. N. K. Madzhi, L. Y. Khuan, M. F. Abdullah, and A. Ahmad, “Development of a low cost self-sensing piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor and read-out circuitry for measuring salivary-amylase activity,” in Proceeding of the International Conference on Electronic Computer Technology (ICECT '10), pp. 9–13, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, May 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C.-S. Zou, M. Zhou, G.-M. Xie et al., “Preparation of disposable saliva α-amylase biosensor,” Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1217–1220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Mahosenaho, F. Caprio, L. Micheli, A. M. Sesay, G. Palleschi, and V. Virtanen, “A disposable biosensor for the determination of alpha-amylase in human saliva,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 170, no. 3-4, pp. 243–249, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. V. da Silva Santos, R. R. Teixeira, D. L. Franco, J. M. Madurro, A. G. Brito-Madurro, and F. S. Espindola, “Bioelectrode for detection of human salivary amylase,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 530–535, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. O. O. Soldatkin, V. M. Peshkova, O. Y. Saiapina et al., “Development of conductometric biosensor array for simultaneous determination of maltose, lactose, sucrose and glucose,” Talanta, vol. 115, pp. 200–207, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. S. Mitchell, T. E. Lowe, and J. R. Ingram, “Rapid ultrasensitive measurement of salivary cortisol using nano-linker chemistry coupled with surface plasmon resonance detection,” Analyst, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 380–386, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. I.-H. Kim, C. Kim, K. Seong, M.-H. Hur, H. M. Lim, and M. S. Lee, “Essential oil inhalation on blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 984203, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Castro, P. C. L. Elias, C. E. Martinelli Jr., S. R. R. Antonini, L. Santiago, and A. C. Moreira, “Salivary cortisol as a tool for physiological studies and diagnostic strategies,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1171–1175, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. D. Dorn, J. F. Lucke, T. L. Loucks, and S. L. Berga, “Salivary cortisol reflects serum cortisol: analysis of circadian profiles,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 44, part 3, pp. 281–284, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. T. Carroll, H. Raff, and J. W. Findling, “Late-night salivary cortisol measurement in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome,” Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 344–350, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Trilck, J. Flitsch, D. K. Lüdecke, R. Jung, and S. Petersenn, “Salivary cortisol measurement—a reliable method for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 225–230, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Lee, S. Kwon, H.-J. Shin et al., “Simultaneous quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol and cortisone in Korean adults using LC-MS/MS,” BMB Reports, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 506–511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. F. Vining, R. A. McGinley, J. J. Maksvytis, and K. Y. Ho, “Salivary cortisol: a better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 20, part 6, pp. 329–335, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. R. Lowe and J. S. Dixon, “Salivary kinetics of prednisolone in man,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 390–391, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. “Testosterone and androgens in women,” in Women's Health Program, Monash University, 2010.
  84. M. Yasuda, S. Honma, K. Furuya et al., “Diagnostic significance of salivary testosterone measurement revisited: using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” Journal of Men's Health, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. L. Arregger, L. N. Contreras, O. R. Tumilasci, D. R. Aquilano, and E. M. L. Cardoso, “Salivary testosterone: a reliable approach to the diagnosis of male hypogonadism,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 656–662, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. F. S. Khan Dawood, J. K. Choe, and M. Y. Dawood, “Salivary and plasma bound and “free” testosterone in men and women,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 441–445, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. S. Mitchell and T. E. Lowe, “Ultrasensitive detection of testosterone using conjugate linker technology in a nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2177–2183, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. Vittek, D. G. L'Hommedieu, G. G. Gordon, S. C. Rappaport, and A. Louis Southren, “Direct Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serum testosterone,” Life Sciences, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 711–716, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. A. Edwards, K. Wetzel, and D. R. Wyner, “Intercollegiate soccer: saliva cortisol and testosterone are elevated during competition, and testosterone is related to status and social connectedness with teammates,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 135–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Booth, A. C. Mazur, and J. M. Dabbs Jr., “Endogenous testosterone and competition: the effect of “fasting”,” Steroids, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 348–350, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. L. Tostain and F. Blanc, “Testosterone deficiency: a common, unrecognized syndrome,” Nature Clinical Practice Urology, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 388–396, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. A. Navarro, F. Aguilo, C. M. Villabona, C. Torrecilla, and R. Bonnin, “Salivary testosterone in prostatic carcinoma,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 306–308, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. Szydlarska, W. Grzesiuk, A. Kondracka, Z. Bartoszewicz, and E. Bar-Andziak, “Measuring salivary androgens as a useful tool in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome,” Endokrynologia Polska, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 183–190, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. “For the quantitative determination of progesterone by enzyme immunoassay in human saliva,” in Progesterone—Direct Salivary EIA, ALPCO Immunoassays, 2003.
  95. B. K. Gandara, L. Leresche, and L. Mancl, “Patterns of salivary estradiol and progesterone across the menstrual cycle,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1098, pp. 446–450, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. Marini and E. Cabassi, “La saliva: approccio complementare nella diagnostica clinica e nella ricerca biologica,” Annali Facoltà Di Medicina Veterinaria Di Parma, vol. 23, pp. 295–311, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  97. K. O. Schwab, G. Heubel, and H. Bartels, “Free epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine in saliva and plasma of healthy adults,” European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 541–544, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. B. Kennedy, E. Dillon, P. J. Mills, and M. G. Ziegler, “Catecholamines in human saliva,” Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 87–99, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Bagci, A. Mueller, J. Reinsberg, A. Heep, P. Bartmann, and A. R. Franz, “Utility of salivary melatonin measurements in the assessment of the pineal physiology in newborn infants,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 10-11, pp. 868–872, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Gröschl, M. Rauh, R. Wagner et al., “Identification of leptin in human saliva,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 5234–5239, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  101. P. Dhar, “Measuring tobacco smoke exposure: quantifying nicotine/cotinine concentration in biological samples by colorimetry, chromatography and immunoassay methods,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 155–168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. I. Perogamvros, L. J. Owen, J. Newell-Price, D. W. Ray, P. J. Trainer, and B. G. Keevil, “Simultaneous measurement of cortisol and cortisone in human saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application in basal and stimulated conditions,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 877, no. 29, pp. 3771–3775, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. R. A. Dressendorfer, C. Kirschbaum, W. Rohde, F. Stahl, and C. J. Strasburger, “Synthesis of a cortisol-biotin conjugate and evaluation as a tracer in an immunoassay for salivary cortisol measurement,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 683–692, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. W. S. Gozansky, J. S. Lynn, M. L. Laudenslager, and W. M. Kohrt, “Salivary cortisol determined by enzyme immunoassay is preferable to serum total cortisol for assessment of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 336–341, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. Raff, P. J. Homar, and D. P. Skoner, “New enzyme immunoassay for salivary cortisol,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 203–204, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Mitchell, “Small molecule immunosensing using surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 7323–7346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. K. Sun, N. Ramgir, and S. Bhansali, “An immunoelectrochemical sensor for salivary cortisol measurement,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 533–537, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. K. Sun, N. Ramgir, and S. Bhansali, “An immunoelectrochemical sensor for salivary cortisol measurement,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 533–537, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. C. Stevens, S. D. Soelberg, S. Near, and C. E. Furlong, “Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 17, pp. 6747–6751, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshikawa, Y. Tahara, D. Niwa, Y. Imai, and V. Shetty, “Point-of-use measurement of salivary cortisol levels,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors (SENSORS '09), pp. 343–346, Christchurch, New Zealand, October 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. Yamaguchi, Y. Matsuda, S. Sasaki et al., “Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 186–191, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. S. K. Arya, G. Chornokur, M. Venugopal, and S. Bhansali, “Antibody modified gold micro array electrode based electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of cortisol in saliva and ISF,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 804–807, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  113. C. Tlili, N. V. Myung, V. Shetty, and A. Mulchandani, “Label-free, chemiresistor immunosensor for stress biomarker cortisol in saliva,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 4382–4386, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. K. Arya, S. Saha, J. E. Ramirez-Vick, V. Gupta, S. Bhansali, and S. P. Singh, “Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 737, pp. 1–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. P. K. Vabbina, A. Kaushik, K. Tracy, S. Bhansali, and N. Pala, “Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing,” in Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology XI, vol. 9107 of Proceedings of SPIE, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014.
  116. P. Brandtzaeg, “Do salivary antibodies reliably reflect both mucosal and systemic immunity?” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1098, pp. 288–311, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. M. J. Blaser, G. I. Perez-Perez, J. Lindenbaum et al., “Association of infection due to Helicobacter pylori with specific upper gastrointestinal pathology,” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, supplement 8, pp. S704–S708, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. T. Matysiak-Budnik and F. Mégraud, “Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 708–716, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. E. Bayerdorffer, A. Neubauer, B. Rudolf et al., “Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection,” The Lancet, vol. 345, no. 8965, pp. 1591–1594, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. C. A. Fallone, M. Elizov, P. Cleland et al., “Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by saliva IgG testing,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1145–1149, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. F. Luzza, G. Oderda, M. Maletta et al., “Salivary immunoglobulin G assay to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection in children,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 3358–3360, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. F. Luzza, M. Maletta, M. Imeneo et al., “Salivary-specific immunoglobulin G in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 1820–1823, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. M. V. da Silva, E. D. Camargo, A. J. Vaz, and L. Batista, “Immunodiagnosis of human leptospirosis using saliva,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 560–561, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. L. de Cock, V. Hutse, E. Verhaegen, S. Quoilin, H. Vandenberghe, and R. Vranckx, “Detection of HCV antibodies in oral fluid,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 179–183, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. K. Fransen, T. Vermoesen, G. Beelaert et al., “Using conventional HIV tests on oral fluid,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 194, no. 1-2, pp. 46–51, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. V. González, E. Martró, C. Folch et al., “Detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies in oral fluid specimens for prevalence studies,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. R. Lee, K. W. Kardos, E. Schiff et al., “Evaluation of a new, rapid test for detecting HCV infection, suitable for use with blood or oral fluid,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 172, no. 1-2, pp. 27–31, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. D. Lucidarme, A. Decoster, D. Fremaux et al., “Routine practice HCV infection screening with saliva samples: multicentric study in an intravenous drug user population,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 480–484, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. Moorthy, H. Daniel, G. Kurian, and P. Abraham, “An evaluation of saliva as an alternative to plasma for the detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies,” Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 327–332, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. J. F. Zmuda, B. Wagoneer, L. Liotta, and G. Whiteley, “Recognition of multiple classes of hepatitis C antibodies increases detection sensitivity in oral fluid,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1267–1270, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. Nandikonda, Analysis of Salivary Immunoglobulin A Levels and Its Correlation with Oral Candidiasis in Seropositive HIV Patients, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India, 2006.
  132. S. Jeganathan, D. Ufomata, J. A. Hobkirk, and L. Ivanyi, “Immunoglobulin A1 and A2 subclass of salivary antibodies to Candida albicans in patients with oral candidosis,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 316–321, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. R. Del Muro, E. Acosta, E. Merino, W. Glender, and L. Ortiz-Ortiz, “Diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis using salivary IgA antibody detection,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 1360–1364, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. E. M. El Hamshary and W. A. S. Arafa, “Detection of IgA anti-Entamoeba histolytica in the patients' saliva,” Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 1095–1104, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. C. S. Needham, J. E. Lillywhite, N. M. R. Beasley, J. M. Didier, C. M. Kihamia, and D. A. P. Bundy, “Potential for diagnosis of intestinal nematode infections through antibody detection in saliva,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 526–530, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. A. Stroehle, K. Schmidt, I. Heinzer, A. Naguleswaran, and A. Hemphill, “Performance of a western immunoblot assay to detect specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in human saliva,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 561–563, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. E. Acosta, “Antibodies to the metacestode of Taenia solium in the saliva from patients with neurocysticercosis,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 90–94, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. I. Tajima, O. Asami, and E. Sugiura, “Monitor of antibodies in human saliva using a piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 365, no. 1–3, pp. 147–149, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. A. Ahmed, J. V. Rushworth, J. D. Wright, and P. A. Millner, “Novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes in human saliva,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 85, no. 24, pp. 12118–12125, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  140. J. Y. Gerasimov and R. Y. Lai, “Design and characterization of an electrochemical peptide-based sensor fabricated via “click” chemistry,” Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 30, pp. 8688–8690, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. A. Vallée-Bélisle, F. Ricci, T. Uzawa, F. Xia, and K. W. Plaxco, “Bioelectrochemical switches for the quantitative detection of antibodies directly in whole blood,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 134, no. 37, pp. 15197–15200, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. A. McQuistan, A. J. Zaitouna, E. Echeverria, and R. Y. Lai, “Use of thiolated oligonucleotides as anti-fouling diluents in electrochemical peptide-based sensors,” Chemical Communications, vol. 50, no. 36, pp. 4690–4692, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  143. M. A. R. St. John, Y. Li, X. Zhou et al., “Interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 as potential biomarkers for oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma,” Archives of Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 130, no. 8, pp. 929–935, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. W. Tan, L. Sabet, Y. Li et al., “Optical protein sensor for detecting cancer markers in saliva,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 266–271, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. D. T. Wong, “Towards a simple, saliva-based test for the detection of oral cancer. “Oral fluid (saliva), which is the mirror of the body, is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance”,” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 267–272, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. Y. J. Jou, C. D. Lin, C. H. Lai et al., “Proteomic identification of salivary transferrin as a biomarker for early detection of oral cancer,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 681, no. 1-2, pp. 41–48, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. E. J. Franzmann, E. P. Reategui, F. Pedroso et al., “Soluble CD44 is a potential marker for the early detection of head and neck cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1348–1355, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. R. Nagler, G. Bahar, T. Shpitzer, and R. Feinmesser, “Concomitant analysis of salivary tumor markers—a new diagnostic tool for oral cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 3979–3984, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. L.-P. Zhong, C.-P. Zhang, J.-W. Zheng, J. Li, W.-T. Chen, and Z.-Y. Zhang, “Increased Cyfra 21-1 concentration in saliva from primary oral squamous cell carcinoma patients,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1079–1087, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. Y.-J. Jou, C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Lai et al., “Salivary zinc finger protein 510 peptide as a novel biomarker for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in early stages,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 412, no. 15-16, pp. 1357–1365, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. L. Zhang, J. J. Farrell, H. Zhou et al., “Salivary transcriptomic biomarkers for detection of resectable pancreatic cancer,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 949–957, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. D. T. Wong, L. Zhang, H. Xiao, and H. Zhou, “Salivary biomarkers for lung cancer detection,” in WIPO Patentscope, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  153. L. Zhang, H. Xiao, H. Zhou et al., “Development of transcriptomic biomarker signature in human saliva to detect lung cancer,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 19, pp. 3341–3350, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. L. R. Bigler, C. F. Streckfus, L. Copeland et al., “The potential use of saliva to detect recurrence of disease in women with breast carcinoma,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 421–431, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. C. Streckfus, L. Bigler, T. Dellinger, X. Dai, A. Kingman, and J. T. Thigpen, “The presence of soluble c-erbB-2 in saliva and serum among women with breast carcinoma: a preliminary study,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2363–2370, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. C. Streckfus, L. Bigler, M. Tucci, and J. T. Thigpen, “A preliminary study of CA15-3, c-erbB-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, cathepsin-D, and p53 in saliva among women with breast carcinoma,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. N. Brooks, J. Wang, Y. Li, R. Zhang, D. Elashoff, and D. T. Wong, “Salivary protein factors are elevated in breast cancer patients,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 375–378, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. Y.-H. Liang, C.-C. Chang, C.-C. Chen, Y. Chu-Su, and C.-W. Lin, “Development of an Au/ZnO thin film surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor immunoassay for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 in human saliva,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 45, no. 18, pp. 1689–1693, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. J. Chen, J. Lin, X. Zhang et al., “Label-free fluorescent biosensor based on the target recycling and Thioflavin T-induced quadruplex formation for short DNA species of c-erbB-2 detection,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 817, pp. 42–47, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  160. F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao et al., “Electrochemical sensor for multiplex biomarkers detection,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 4446–4452, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. J. V. Jokerst, A. Raamanathan, N. Christodoulides et al., “Nano-bio-chips for high performance multiplexed protein detection: determinations of cancer biomarkers in serum and saliva using quantum dot bioconjugate labels,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 3622–3629, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. S. Nie, W. H. Henley, S. E. Miller et al., “An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1087–1098, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  163. S. Sadhasivam, J. C. Chen, S. Savitha, C. W. Chang, and F. H. Lin, “Application of carbon nanotubes layered on silicon wafer for the detection of breast cancer marker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 by immuno-polymerase chain reaction,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 101–111, 2014. View at Google Scholar