Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses
Transition of CSC-pretreated C. albicans following contact with gingival fibroblasts. C. albicans was incubated for 24 h in the presence of CSC and then used to infect gingival fibroblast cultures for 6 h under hyphal transformation conditions (presence of 10% serum at 37°C). Each culture condition was photographed following crystal violet staining. Note the high level of C. albicans hyphae. Representative photos are from 4 different independent experiments.