Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 973609, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/973609
Review Article

CD20+ B Cell Depletion in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: Common Mechanism of Inhibition or Disease-Specific Effect on Humoral Immunity?

1Department of Renal Medicine, Papageorgiou Hospital, 56403 Thessaloniki, Greece
22nd Prop Department of Internal Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, Konstantinoupoleos 49, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece

Received 8 February 2014; Accepted 3 March 2014; Published 27 March 2014

Academic Editor: Gabriel J. Tobón

Copyright © 2014 Panagiotis Pateinakis and Athina Pyrpasopoulou. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Baumgarth, “Innate-like B cells and their rules of engagement,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 785, pp. 57–66, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. T. Kawahara, H. Ohdan, G. Zhao, Y. G. Yang, and M. Sykes, “Peritoneal cavity B cells are precursors of splenic IgM natural antibody-producing cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 171, no. 10, pp. 5406–5414, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Pieper, B. Grimbacher, and H. Eibel, “B-cell biology and development,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 959–971, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. J. Leandro, “B-cell subpopulations in humans and their differential susceptibility to depletion with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 15, supplement 1, article S3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Roll, A. Palanichamy, C. Kneitz, T. Dorner, and H.-P. Tony, “Regeneration of B cell subsets after transient B cell depletion using anti-CD20 antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 2377–2386, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. J. Tobón, J. H. Izquierdo, and C. A. Cañas, “B lymphocytes: development, tolerance, and their role in autoimmunity-focus on systemic lupus erythematosus,” Autoimmune Diseases, vol. 2013, Article ID 827254, 17 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. N. V. Giltiay, C. P. Chappell, and E. A. Clark, “B-cell selection and the development of autoantibodies,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 14, supplement 4, article S1, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. S. Yurasov, H. Wardemann, J. Hammersen et al., “Defective B cell tolerance checkpoints in systemic lupus erythematosus,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 201, no. 5, pp. 703–711, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Almqvist and I. L. Mårtensson, “The pre-B cell receptor; selecting for or against autoreactivity,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 256–262, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. O. T. Chan, L. G. Hannum, A. M. Haberman, M. P. Madaio, and M. J. Shlomchik, “A novel mouse with B cells but lacking serum antibody reveals an antibody-independent role for B cells in murine lupus,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 189, no. 10, pp. 1639–1648, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Blüml, K. McKeever, R. Ettinger, J. Smolen, and R. Herbst, “B-cell targeted therapeutics in clinical development,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 15, supplemet 1, article S4, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Molina, “A decade of rituximab: improving survival outcomes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 59, pp. 237–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. E. Reff, K. Carner, K. S. Chambers et al., “Depletion of B cells in vivo by a chimeric mouse human monoclonal antibody to CD20,” Blood, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 435–445, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. He, H. Zhou, W. Han, and S. Zhang, “Rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 12, Article ID CD009130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. D. Pescovitz, “Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody: history and mechanism of action,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 5, part 1, pp. 859–866, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. H. Anolik, R. J. Looney, F. E. Lund, T. D. Randall, and I. Sanz, “Insights into the heterogeneity of human B cells: diverse functions, roles in autoimmunity, and use as therapeutic targets,” Immunologic Research, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 144–158, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Pyrpasopoulou, S. Douma, A. Triantafyllou et al., “Response to rituximab and timeframe to relapse in rheumatoid arthritis patients: association with B-cell markers,” Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Szodoray, P. Alex, V. Dandapani et al., “Apoptotic effect of rituximab on peripheral blood B cells in rheumatoid arthritis,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 209–218, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. D. Pescovitz, T. R. Torgerson, H. D. Ochs et al., “Effect of rituximab on human in vivo antibody immune responses,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 1295.e5–1302.e5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. A. Sidner, B. K. Book, A. Agarwal, C. M. Bearden, C. A. Vieira, and M. D. Pescovitz, “In vivo human B-cell subset recovery after in vivo depletion with rituximab, anti-human CD20 monoclonal antibody,” Human Antibodies, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 55–62, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Váncsa, Z. Szabó, S. Szamosi et al., “Longterm effects of rituximab on B cell counts and autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis: use of high-sensitivity flow cytometry for more sensitive assessment of B cell depletion,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 565–571, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. V. Reddy, D. Jayne, D. Close, and D. Isenberg, “B-cell depletion in SLE: clinical and trial experience with rituximab and ocrelizumab and implications for study design,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 15, supplement 1, article S2, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. E. M. Miloslavsky, U. Specks, P. A. Merkel et al., “Clinical outcomes of remission induction therapy for severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 2441–2449, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. T. A. Barr, P. Shen, S. Brown et al., “B cell depletion therapy ameliorates autoimmune disease through ablation of IL-6-producing B cells,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 209, no. 5, pp. 1001–1010, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. V. P. Luu, M. I. Vazquez, and A. Zlotnik, “B cells participate in tolerance and autoimmunity through cytokine production,” Autoimmunity, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. U. Scher, “B-cell therapies for rheumatoid arthritis,” Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 200–203, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. A. Moura, L. Graca, and J. E. Fonseca, “To B or not to B the conductor of rheumatoid arthritis orchestra,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 281–291, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. B. Marston, A. Palanichamy, and J. H. Anolik, “B cells in the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 307–315, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Paroli, “Clinical use of biologics in vasculitis syndromes,” Biologics, vol. 6, pp. 371–378, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. R. Tarzi and C. Pusey, “Vasculitis syndromes: RAVE about rituximab in ANCA vasculitis?” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 628–629, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. U. Specks, P. A. Merkel, P. Seo et al., “Efficacy of remission-induction regimens for ANCA-associated vasculitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 5, pp. 417–427, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. R. Cartin-Ceba, J. M. Golbin, K. A. Keogh et al., “Rituximab for remission induction and maintenance in refractory granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's): ten-year experience at a single center,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 3770–3778, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. C. Sneller, Z. Hu, and C. A. Langford, “A randomized controlled trial of rituximab following failure of antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 835–842, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. J. Ding and C. Gordon, “New biologic therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 405–512, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. D. A. Isenberg, “Rituximab—it was the best of times, it was the worst of times,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 790–791, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. N. Lazarus, T. Turner-Stokes, K. M. Chavele, D. A. Isenberg, and M. R. Ehrenstein, “B-cell numbers and phenotype at clinical relapse following rituximab therapy differ in SLE patients according to anti-dsDNA antibody levels,” Rheumatology, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1208–1215, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. T. Dörner, A. M. Jacobi, J. Lee, and P. E. Lipsky, “Abnormalities of B cell subsets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 187–197, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Ramos-Casals, I. Sanz, X. Bosch, J. H. Stone, and M. A. Khamashta, “B-cell-depleting therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 327–336, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Fanouriakis, D. T. Boumpas, and G. K. Bertsias, “Balancing efficacy and toxicity of novel therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 437–451, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Dörner and P. E. Lipsky, “B cells: depletion or functional modulation in rheumatic diseases,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 228–236, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar