BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

The Relationship between Independent Transfer Skills and Upper Limb Kinetics in Wheelchair Users

Table 3

The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) of the kinetic variables normalized by body mass (kg).

VariablesTrailing 
(right) side
Leading
(left) side
Mean (±SD)Mean (±SD)

Shoulder
 AveRF (N/Kg)2.98 (±0.75)2.52 (±0.54)
 MaxRF (N/Kg)4.54 (±1.10)4.24 (±0.97)
 MaxRFRate (N/sec Kg)15.95 (±6.09)13.14 (±5.72)
 AveRM (N m/Kg)0.53 (±0.26)0.60 (±0.17)
 MaxRM (N m/Kg)0.87 (±0.38)1.06 (±0.25)
 MaxRMRate  (N m/sec Kg)3.36 (±1.95)3.96 (±1.38)
 MaxSupF (N/Kg)1.58 (±0.70)2.18 (±1.14)
 MaxPosF (N/Kg)3.22 (±1.17)3.23 (±0.95)
 MaxIRM (N m/Kg)0.10 (±0.11)0.10 (±0.15)
 MaxAbdM (N m/Kg)0.43 (±0.21)0.42 (±0.26)
 MaxExtenM (N m/Kg)0.41 (±0.30)0.70 (±0.32)

Elbow
 AveRF (N/Kg)2.76 (±0.71)2.37 (±0.59)
 MaxRF (N/Kg)4.35 (±1.07)4.20 (±1.03)
 MaxRFRate (N/sec Kg)16.06 (±6.00)4.66 (±2.91)
 AveRM (N m/Kg)0.38 (±0.16)0.21 (±0.10)
 MaxRM (N m/Kg)0.62 (±0.23)0.39 (±0.15)
 MaxRMRate  (N m/sec Kg)2.43 (±1.18)1.85 (±0.89)

Wrist
 AveRF (N/Kg)2.69 (±0.70)2.34 (±0.61)
 MaxRF (N/Kg)4.29 (±1.05)4.19 (±1.06)
 MaxRFRate (N/sec Kg)16.21 (±6.08)13.17 (±5.74)
 AveRM (N m/Kg)0.22 (±0.06)0.15 (±0.08)
 MaxRM (N m/Kg)0.35 (±0.09)0.26 (±0.14)
 MaxRMRate  (N m/sec Kg)1.34 (±0.57)0.86 (±0.46)

Ave: average; Max: maximum; RF: resultant force; RFRate: rate of rise of resultant force; RM: resultant moment; RMRate: rate of rise of resultant moment; SupF: superior force; PosF: posterior force; IRM: internal rotation moment; AbdM: abduction moment; ExtenM: extension moment.

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