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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 985706, 8 pages
Research Article

Visualization of Genome Signatures of Eukaryote Genomes by Batch-Learning Self-Organizing Map with a Special Emphasis on Drosophila Genomes

1Information Engineering, Niigata University, Niigata-shi, Niigata-ken 950-2181, Japan
2Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma-shi, Nara-ken 630-0101, Japan
3Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Nagahama-shi, Shiga-ken 526-0829, Japan

Received 1 November 2013; Accepted 4 February 2014; Published 11 March 2014

Academic Editor: Altaf-Ul- Amin

Copyright © 2014 Takashi Abe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A strategy of evolutionary studies that can compare vast numbers of genome sequences is becoming increasingly important with the remarkable progress of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods. We previously established a sequence alignment-free clustering method “BLSOM” for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide compositions in genome sequences, which can characterize sequence characteristics (genome signatures) of a wide range of species. In the present study, we generated BLSOMs for tetra- and pentanucleotide compositions in approximately one million sequence fragments derived from 101 eukaryotes, for which almost complete genome sequences were available. BLSOM recognized phylotype-specific characteristics (e.g., key combinations of oligonucleotide frequencies) in the genome sequences, permitting phylotype-specific clustering of the sequences without any information regarding the species. In our detailed examination of 12 Drosophila species, the correlation between their phylogenetic classification and the classification on the BLSOMs was observed to visualize oligonucleotides diagnostic for species-specific clustering.