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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 103052, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/103052
Research Article

Development of Enhanced Primer Sets for Detection of Norovirus

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea
2Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-390, Republic of Korea
3Environmental Infrastructure Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 404-708, Republic of Korea

Received 29 August 2014; Revised 5 November 2014; Accepted 27 November 2014

Academic Editor: Elena Orlova

Copyright © 2015 Byoung-Hwa Kong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Norovirus (NV) is a major viral pathogen that causes nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis and outbreaks of food-borne disease. The genotype of NV most frequently responsible for NV outbreaks is GII.4, which accounts for 60–80% of cases. Moreover, original and new NV variant types have been continuously emerging, and their emergence is related to the recent global increase in NV infection. In this study, we developed advanced primer sets (NKI-F/R/F2, NKII-F/R/R2) for the detection of NV, including the variant types. The new primer sets were compared with conventional primer sets (GI-F1/R1/F2, SRI-1/2/3, GII-F1/R1/F2, and SRII-1/2/3) to evaluate their efficiency when using clinical and environmental samples. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and seminested PCR, NV GI and GII were detected in 91.7% (NKI-F/R/F2), 89.3% (NKII-F/R/R2), 54.2% (GI-F1/R1/F2), 52.5% (GII-F1/R1/F2), 25.0% (SRI-1/2/3), and 32.2% (SRII-1/2/3) of clinical and environmental specimens. Therefore, our primer sets perform better than conventional primer sets in the detection of emerged types of NV and could be used in the future for epidemiological diagnosis of infection with the virus.