Comparison of gene profiles in hOFs and hDFs by functional annotation clustering (FAC) and pathway analysis. (a) The positional signatures of hOFs and hDFs as an internal validation. Gene expression of cranial neural crest markers for hOFs (left). Gene expression of anterior-posterior (A-P) axis markers in the body for hDFs (right). Numbers indicate the average signal values in hOFs and hDFs. (b) The top 12 clusters of FAC result in hOFs compared with hDFs. Red bar: the highest enriched cluster in hOFs > hDFs; blue bar: the highest enriched cluster in hOFs < hDFs. (c) The top 12 clusters of FAC result in the individual components of glycoproteins and transcriptional regulation in (b). (d) and (e) Pathway analysis results in genes with high (d) and low (e) expression in hOFs compared with hDFs. Indicated numbers in (b) to (e) represent enrichment scores by DAVID. The number in (d) indicates the three groups categorized in the text. The full names of each gene listed in (d) and (e) are shown in Supplementary Tables S2 and S3, respectively.