BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers: Where Are We Now?

Table 2

Currently used CRC screening tests.

TestAdvantagesLimitations

Colonoscopy (i) Highest performance for CRC detection
(ii) Views entire colon
(iii) Can take biopsies
(iv) Can remove polyps
(i) May not detect some polyps, cancer, and nonpolypoid lesions
(ii) Requires sedation
(iii) Requires bowel preparation
(iv) May cause tearing or perforation [62]

Flexible sigmoidoscopy(i) High performance for CRC detection in rectum and lower one-third of the colon
(ii) Minimal Bowel preparation
(iii) Does not require sedation
(iv) Can take biopsies
(v) Can remove polyps
(i) Cannot detect abnormalities in the upper part of the colon
(ii) Very small risk of tearing or perforation [62]

Double-contrast barium enema(i) High performance for CRC detection
(ii) Views entire colon
(iii) Does not require sedation
(i) May not detect small polyps and cancer
(ii) Requires bowel preparation
(iii) May indicate false-positive results
(iv) Colonoscopy is needed to remove polyps or perform a biopsy if abnormalities are found

Computer tomographic colonography(i) High performance for CRC detection
(ii) Views entire colon
(iii) Does not require sedation
(iv) Noninvasive
(i) May not detect some polyps, cancer, and nonpolypoid lesions [63, 64]
(ii) Requires bowel preparation
(iii) Colonoscopy is needed to remove polyps or perform a biopsy if abnormalities are found [65]

Fecal blood tests(i) Intermediate performance for CRC detection
(ii) Noninvasive
(iii) No bowel preparation
(iv) Low cost
(i) Fails to detect most polyps and some cancers [66, 67]
(ii) May indicate false-positive results [66, 67]
(iii) Dietary restrictions may be needed
(iv) Needs a confirmatory colonoscopy for positive results

Stool DNA test(i) Intermediate performance for CRC detection
(ii) Noninvasive
(iii) No bowel preparation
(i) Will not detect some polyps and cancers
(ii) Costly
(iii) Uncertain interval for screening
(iv) Needs a confirmatory colonoscopy for positive results

Based on information on colorectal cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society [2].

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