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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 164980, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/164980
Research Article

Effect of Clinoptilolite and Sepiolite Nanoclays on Human and Parasitic Highly Phagocytic Cells

1Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
2Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico, S.A. de C.V., Avenida de los Sauces No. 87, Mz 6, Parque Industrial Lerma, 52000 Toluca, Mexico

Received 1 August 2014; Revised 22 October 2014; Accepted 23 October 2014

Academic Editor: Abraham Landa-Piedra

Copyright © 2015 Yanis Toledano-Magaña et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanoclays have potential applications in biomedicine raising the need to evaluate their toxicity in in vitro models as a first approach to its biocompatibility. In this study, in vitro toxicity of clinoptilolite and sepiolite nanoclays (NC) was analyzed in highly phagocytic cultures of amoebas and human and mice macrophages. While amebic viability was significantly affected only by sepiolite NC at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL, the effect on macrophage cultures was dependent on the origin of the cells. Macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes were less affected in viability (25% decrease at 48 h), followed by the RAW 264.7 cell line (40%), and finally, macrophages derived from mice bone marrow monocytes (98%). Moreover, the cell line and mice macrophages die mainly by necrosis, whereas human macrophages exhibit increased apoptosis. Cytokine expression analysis in media of sepiolite NC treated cultures showed a proinflammatory profile (INFγ, IL-1α, IL-8, and IL-6), in contrast with clinoptilolite NC that induced lees cytokines with concomitant production of IL-10. The results show that sepiolite NC is more toxic to amoebas and macrophages than clinoptilolite NC, mostly in a time and dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of sepiolite NC was comparable with talc powder suggesting that both NC have low cytotoxicity in vitro.