Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 164989, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/164989
Review Article

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Service, American University of Beirut, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon

Received 6 December 2014; Revised 20 February 2015; Accepted 20 February 2015

Academic Editor: Mehdi Mirsaeidi

Copyright © 2015 Wajiha J. Kheir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. S. Moorthy, S. Valluri, and N. A. Rao, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial ocular and adnexal infections,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 202–235, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. E. Griffith, T. Aksamit, B. A. Brown-Elliott et al., “An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 4, pp. 367–416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Turner and I. Stinson, “Mycobacterium fortuitum. As a cause of corneal ulcer,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 329–331, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Turner, “Atypical mycobacterial infections in ophthalmology,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 68, pp. 667–729, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. A. Levine, “Infection of the orbit by an atypical mycobacterium,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 608–610, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. E. Wassermann, “Avian tuberculosis endophthalmitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 321–323, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. John and E. Velotta, “Nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacterial keratitis after LASIK: current status and clinical implications,” Cornea, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 245–255, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. C. Broadway, M. G. Kerr-Muir, S. J. Eykyn, and H. Pambakian, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis: a case report and review of previously reported cases,” Eye, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 134–142, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. F. Paschal, G. N. Holland, R. F. Sison et al., “Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis: clinicopathologic correlates and corticosteroid effects in an animal model,” Cornea, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 493–499, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Ali, J. A. Sivak-Callcott, R. Khakoo, and H. J. Williams, “Mycobacterium fortuitum infection masquerading as an orbital mass,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 327–329, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. I. Ayyash, R. G. Weatherhead, and C. Jacquemin, “Mycobacterium of an unknown strain causing a primary tumoral process of the orbital roof,” Orbit, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 281–286, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Gonzalez-Fernandez and S. A. Kaltreider, “Orbital lipogranulomatous inflammation harboring Mycobacterium abscessus,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 374–380, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. R. Klapper, J. R. Patrinely, S. L. Kaplan, and R. L. Font, “Atypical mycobacterial infection of the orbit,” Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 1536–1541, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Mauriello, “Atypical mycobacterial infection of the periocular region after periocular and facial surgery,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 182–188, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. J. Wallace Jr., J. M. Swenson, V. A. Silcox, and M. G. Bullen, “Treatment of nonpulmonary infections due to Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonei on the basis of in vitro susceptibilities,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 500–514, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Zuercher and T. Malet, “Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a case of recurrent orbital implant exposure,” Orbit, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 337–339, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Benton and A. Karkanevatos, “Preseptal cellulitis due to Mycobacterium marinum,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 606–608, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. J. Chang, D. T. Tse, R. H. Rosa, and D. Miller, “Periocular atypical mycobacterial infections,” Ophthalmology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 86–90, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. G. Crosswell and I. M. Leyngold, “Atypical mycobacterial infection following upper eyelid blepharoplasty,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. B. W. Davies, E. M. Bratton, V. D. Durairaj, and E. M. Hink, “Bilateral Candida and atypical mycobacterial infection after frontalis sling suspension with silicone rod to correct congenital ptosis,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. e111–e113, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Kevitch and B. Guyuron, “Mycobacterial infection following blepharoplasty,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 229–232, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. S. Moorthy and N. A. Rao, “Atypical mycobacterial wound infection after blepharoplasty,” The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 79, no. 1, p. 93, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Rao, T. A. Golden, and R. E. Fitzpatrick, “Atypical mycobacterial infection following blepharoplasty and full-face skin resurfacing with CO2 laser,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 768–771, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Walang, S. Rath, and S. Sharma, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after frontalis sling surgery using silicone rod,” Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 219–221, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. T. Warman and R. S. Klein, “Preseptal cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare,” Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 499–501, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. W. Artenstein, A. S. Eiseman, and G. C. Campbell, “Chronic dacryocystitis caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum,” Ophthalmology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 666–668, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Dansby, A. Morgan, W. Gilhum et al., “Epidemiological notes and reports. Mycobacterium chelonei infections following eye surgery-Texas,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 32, pp. 591–600, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  28. E. Elahi, D. Su, and A. Young, “Canaliculitis involving Mycobacterium fortuitum after dacryocystorhinostomy with silicone stenting,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 291–292, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. S. Feder, R. R. Rao, G. S. Lissner, P. J. Bryar, and M. Szatkowski, “Atypical mycobacterial keratitis and canaliculitis in a patient with an indwelling SmartPLUGTM,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 383–384, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. M. Fowler, J. J. Dutton, W. C. Fowler, and P. Gilligan, “Mycobacterium chelonae canaliculitis associated with SmartPlug use,” Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 241–243, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. A. Katowitz and T. M. Kropp, “Mycobacterium fortuitum as a cause for nasolacrimal obstruction and granulomatous eyelid disease,” Ophthalmic Surgery, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 97–99, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. E. Moscato and B. S. Sires, “Atypical canaliculitis,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 54–55, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. S. Rootman, M. S. Insler, and D. E. Wolfley, “Canaliculitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae after lacrimal intubation with silicone tubes,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 221–222, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. E. Smith, J. J. Salz, R. Moors, D. Silverstein, and W. Lewis, “Mycobacterium chelonei and orbital granuloma after tear duct probing,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 139–141, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Alvarenga, D. Freitas, A. L. Hofling-Lima et al., “Infectious post-LASIK crystalline keratopathy caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria,” Cornea, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 426–429, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. W. Aylward, A. R. Stacey, and R. J. Marsh, “Mycobacterium chelonei infection of a corneal graft,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 690–693, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. J. Bottone and K. W. Cho, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis elucidation of diagnosis through evaluation of smears of fluid from patient's contact lens care system,” Cornea, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 356–358, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. T. van der Beek, A. T. Bernards, and R. Lapid-Gortzak, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 294–296, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Brancato, F. Carones, E. Venturi, A. Cavallero, and G. Gesu, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 1316–1318, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. H. Bullington, J. D. Lanier, and R. L. Font, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis: report of two cases and review of the literature,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 519–524, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Busin, D. Ponzin, and R. C. Arffa, “Mycobacterium chelonae interface infection after endokeratoplasty,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 393–395, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. İ. Ceyhan, G. Tarhan, S. Cesur, and F. Gümüşlü, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) specifically identified by INNO-LIPA method,” Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 273–277, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. S. Chandra, M. F. Torres, K. L. Winthrop et al., “Cluster of Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis cases following laser in-situ keratomileusis,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 819–830, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. S. Chung, M. H. Goldstein, W. T. Driebe Jr., and B. H. Schwartz, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis successfully treated with medical therapy and flap removal,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 382–384, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S.-H. Chung, I. R. Mi, S. P. Min, T. K. Young, K. L. Hyung, and K. K. Eung, “Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after LASIK with IntraLase femtosecond laser,” Ophthalmologica, vol. 220, no. 4, pp. 277–280, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. B. Crane, R. E. Stevens, R. D. Couch, T. L. Lee, and R. Terui, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratopathy with visual rehabilitation by a triple procedure,” Ophthalmic Surgery, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 802–806, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. S. Daines, D. T. Vroman, H. P. Sandoval, L. L. Steed, and K. D. Solomon, “Rapid diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1014–1018, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. de la Cruz, I. Behlau, and R. Pineda, “Atypical mycobacteria keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis unresponsive to fourth-generation fluoroquinolone therapy,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1318–1321, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Dolz-Marco, P. Udaondo, R. Gallego-Pinazo, J. M. Millán, and M. Díaz-Llopis, “Topical linezolid for refractory bilateral Mycobacterium chelonae post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis keratitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 130, no. 11, pp. 1475–1476, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. U. Dugel, G. N. Holland, H. H. Brown et al., “Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 661–669, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Fogla, S. K. Rao, and P. Padmanabhan, “Interface keratitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following laser in situ keratomileusis,” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 263–265, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Freitas, L. Alvarenga, J. Sampaio et al., “An outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infection after LASIK,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 276–285, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. E. Frueh, O. Dubuis, P. Imesch, M. Böhnke, and T. Bodmer, “Mycobacterium szulgai keratitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 1123–1124, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. F. A. Fulcher, R. C. Fader, R. H. Rosa Jr., and G. P. Holmes, “Delayed-onset mycobacterial keratitis after LASIK,” Cornea, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 546–554, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. R. J. Gangadharam, D. E. Lanier, and D. E. Jones, “Keratitis due to Mycobacterium chelonei,” Tubercle, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Garg, A. K. Bansal, S. Sharma, and G. K. Vemuganti, “Bilateral infectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: a case report and review of the literature,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 121–125, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Gelender, H. L. Carter, B. Bowman, W. E. Beebe, and G. R. Walters, “Mycobacterium keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Refractive Surgery, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. Giaconi, R. Pham, and C. N. Ta, “Bilateral Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 887–890, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Grigg, L. W. Hirst, M. Whitby, K. Stallard, and P. Gnanaharan, “Atypical Mycobacterium keratitis,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 257–261, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. N. Hamam, B. Noureddin, H. I. Salti, R. Haddad, and J. M. Khoury, “Recalcitrant post-LASIK Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis eradicated after the use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolone,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 950–954, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. Honarvar, H. Movahedan, M. Mahmoodi, F. M. Sheikholeslami, and P. Farnia, “Mycobacterium aurum keratitis: an unusual etiology of a sight-threatening infection,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 204–208, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F.-R. Hu, “Extensive lamellar keratectomy for treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. F.-R. Hu, “Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 738–739, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F.-R. Hu, W.-J. Huang, and S.-F. Huang, “Clinicopathologic study of satellite lesions in nontuberculous Mycobacterial keratitis,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 115–118, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F.-R. Hu and K.-T. Luh, “Topical ciprofloxacin for treating nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 269–272, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. C. M. Huang, H. K. Soong, J.-S. Chang, and Y.-S. Liang, “Non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis: a study of 22 cases,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 962–968, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. Kamiya, M. Kasahara, and K. Shimizu, “A case of intractable infectious keratitis and subsequent flap necrosis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 523–525, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. L. Karp, S. S. Tuli, S. H. Yoo et al., “Infectious keratitis after LASIK,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 503–510, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Knapp, G. A. Stern, and C. I. Hood, “Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare corneal ulcer,” Cornea, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 175–180, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. Khooshabeh, J. M. Grange, M. D. Yates, A. C. E. McCartney, and T. A. Casey, “A case report of Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis and a review of mycobacterial infections of the eye and orbit,” Tubercle and Lung Disease, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 377–382, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. A. Kouyoumdjian, S. L. Forstot, V. D. Durairaj, and R. E. Damiano, “Infectious keratitis after laser refractive surgery,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 1266–1268, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. D. Kymionis, V. P. Kankariya, and G. A. Kontadakis, “Combined treatment with flap amputation, phototherapeutic keratectomy, and collagen crosslinking in severe intractable post-LASIK atypical mycobacterial infection with corneal melt,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 713–715, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Y. Laflamme, M. Poisson, and N. Chehade, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis following penetrating keratoplasty,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 178–180, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. Lalitha, S. R. Rathinam, and M. Srinivasan, “Ocular infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria,” Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 231–237, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. M. Lauring, F. L. Wergeland, and G. E. Sack, “Anonymous Mycobacterium keratitis,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 130–133, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Lazar, P. Nemet, R. Bracha, and A. Campus, “Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 530–532, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. B. Lee, K. M. Oliver, Y. N. J. Strube, S. K. Mohan, and A. R. Slomovic, “Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in the treatment of mycobacterial infectious keratitis after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 750–753, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. S. Levenson and C. H. Harrison, “Mycobacterium fortuitum corneal ulcer,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 189–191, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Q.-F. Liang, X.-G. Sun, Y. Li, Z.-Q. Wang, S.-Y. Luo, and R. Li, “Bilateral nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 120, no. 21, pp. 1935–1937, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Lois and M. L. P. del Molino, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis: resolution after debridement and presoaked collagen shields,” Cornea, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 536–539, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. X. Liu, Y. Zhao, Y. Yang et al., “Mycobacterium massiliense Keratitis,” Optometry & Vision Science, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. E944–E947, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. H. Mah-Sadorra, E. J. Cohen, and C. J. Rapuano, “Mycobacterium chelonae wound ulcer after clear-cornea cataract surgery,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 1888–1889, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. A. Malecha and D. J. Doughman, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis associated with soft contact lens wear,” CLAO Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 228–230, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Matoba, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis.,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 595–596, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. K. A. McClellan, P. J. Bernard, L. P. Robinson, K. V. Meades, G. W. Aylward, and F. A. Billson, “Atypical mycobacterial keratitis,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 103–105, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. M. Meisler, M. H. Friedlaender, and M. Okumoto, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 398–401, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. J. Millar, C. Bulliard, C. Balachandran, and A. J. Maloof, “Mycobacterium hemophilum infection presenting as filamentary keratopathy in an immunocompromised adult,” Cornea, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 764–766, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. J. Mirate, D. S. Hull, J. H. Steel, and M. J. Carter, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis: a case report,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 324–326, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. B. Moore, C. Newton, and H. E. Kaufman, “Chronic keratitis caused by Mycobacterium gordonae,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 516–521, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. Moshirfar, J. J. Meyer, and L. Espandar, “Fourth-generation fluoroquinolone-resistant mycobacterial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1978–1981, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. I. Murthy, R. Jain, R. Swarup, and V. S. Sangwan, “Recurrent non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus,” BMJ Case Reports, vol. 2013, Article ID 200641, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. P. E. Newman, R. A. Goodman, G. O. Waring III et al., “A cluster of cases of Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis associated with outpatient office procedures,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 344–348, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Pache, I. Schipper, J. Flammer, and P. Meyer, “Unilateral fungal and mycobacterial keratitis after simultaneous laser in situ keratomileusis,” Cornea, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 72–75, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. A. Pacheco and P. M. K. Tam, “Oral moxifloxacin and topical amikacin for Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 843–846, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. L. Perez-Balbuena, V. Vanzzini-Zago, M. Garza, and D. C. Cancino, “Atypical mycobacterium keratitis associated with penetrating keratoplasty: case report of successful therapy with topical gatifloxacin 0.3%,” Cornea, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 468–470, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. Garg, S. Athmanathan, and G. N. Rao, “Mycobacterium chelonei masquerading as Corynebacterium in a case of infectious keratitis: a diagnostic dilemma,” Cornea, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 230–232, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. L. E. Probst, L. V. Brewer, Z. Hussain, and A. C. Tokarewicz, “Treatment of Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis with amikacin, doxycycline and topical ciprofloxacin,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 81–84, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. V. Reviglio, M. L. Rodriguez, G. S. Picotti, M. Paradello, J. D. Luna, and C. P. Juárez, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Refractive Surgery, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 357–360, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. P. Richardson, G. J. Crawford, D. W. Smith, and C. P. Xanthis, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 195–196, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. B. Robin, R. F. Beatty, S. Dunn et al., “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis after radial keratotomy,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. B. Rodriguez, K. A. Holzinger, L. H. Le, R. K. Winkle, and R. D. Allen, “Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis after laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1059–1061, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. U. Saeed, A. J. Jafree, R. DeCock, and J. Nash, “An unusual pathogen causing microbial keratitis,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 606–608, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. L. M. Sampaio, D. Nassar Jr., D. De Freitas et al., “An outbreak of keratitis caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 3201–3207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Sanghvi, “Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis,” Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 422–424, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. U. Schönherr, G. O. H. Naumann, G. K. Lang, and A. A. Bialasiewicz, “Sclerokeratitis caused by Mycobacterium marinum,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 607–608, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. I. U. Scott, D. F. Lieb, H. W. Flynn, A. Dessouki, and T. G. Murray, “Endophthalmitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae: selection of antibiotics and outcomes of treatment,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 573–576, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. K. Y. Seo, J. B. Lee, K. Lee, M. J. Kim, K. Ryong Choi, and E. K. Kim, “Non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis at the interface after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Journal of Refractive Surgery, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 81–85, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. J. Servat, J. C. Ramos-Esteban, S. Tauber, and F. J. Bia, “Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus complex clear corneal wound infection with recurrent hypopyon and perforation after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1448–1451, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. R. Sexton, “Mycobacterium fortuitum infection of the cornea,” in Corneal and External Diseases of the Eye, F. M. Polack, Ed., pp. 25–28, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  110. R. L. B. Siong and A. F. Felipe, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery: a report of 13 cases,” Cornea, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 625–630, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. A. Solomon, C. L. Karp, D. Miller, S. R. Dubovy, A. J. W. Huang, and W. W. Culbertson, “Mycobacteriuminterface keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 12, pp. 2201–2208, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. N. Sossi, R. M. Feldman, S. T. Feldman, B. E. Frueh, G. McGuire, and C. Davis, “Mycobacterium gordonae keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 1064–1065, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. Srinivasan, L. Prajna, and N. V. Prajna, “A cluster of cases of Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis following penetrating keratoplasty,” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 67–68, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. Y.-C. Sun, I.-J. Wang, and F.-R. Hu, “Bilateral Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 285–287, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. Y.-C. Sun, I.-J. Wang, W.-L. Chen, and F.-R. Hu, “Therapeutic Keratectomy for Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after LASIK,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 805–807, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. S. Sungkanuparph, B. Sathapatayavongs, and R. Pracharktam, “Infections with rapidly growing mycobacteria: report of 20 cases,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 198–205, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. P. S. Suresh, I. Campbell, S. Herzig, and D. S. Rootman, “Mycobacterium keratitis following hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 272–274, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. M. Susiyanti, J. S. Mehta, and D. T. Tan, “Bilateral deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for the management of bilateral post-LASIK mycobacterial keratitis,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1641–1643, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. A. Telahun, G. O. Waring, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Mycobacterium gordonae keratitis,” Cornea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 77–82, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. S.-H. Tseng and W.-C. Hsiao, “Therapeutic lamellar keratectomy in the management of nontuberculous Mycobacterium keratitis refractory to medical treatments,” Cornea, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. A. K. Tyagi, V. V. Kayarkar, and P. J. McDonnell, “An unreported side effect of topical clarithromycin when used successfully to treat Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare keratitis,” Cornea, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 606–607, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. T. Umapathy, R. Singh, H. S. Dua, and F. Donald, “Non-tuberculous mycobacteria related infectious crystalline keratopathy,” The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 1374–1375, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. M. Valenton, “Wound infection after cataract surgery,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 447–455, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. S. Verma, S. L. Watson, J. K. G. Dart, and S. J. Eykyn, “Bilateral Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis following LASIK,” Journal of Refractive Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 379–380, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. W. E. Willis and P. R. Laibson, “Intractable Mycobacterium fortuitum corneal ulcer in man,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 500–504, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. R. Wong, Y. H. Luo, M. F. Al-Zahawi, and T. R. G. Poole, “Infective crystalline keratopathy secondary to non-tuberculous mycobacterium (Mycobacterium abscessus) in a non-traumatized eye,” Eye, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1123–1124, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. A. K. Wong and D. S. Lam, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis: report of a case and review of the literature,” Yan Ke Xue Bao, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 156–163, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. S. E. Wunsh, G. L. Byle, I. H. Leopold, and M. L. Littman, “Mycobacterium fortuitum infection of corneal graft,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 602–607, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. T. Yamaguchi, H. Bissen-Miyajima, Y. Hori-Komai et al., “Infectious keratitis outbreak after laser in situ keratomileusis at a single laser center in Japan,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 894–900, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. A. Yamamoto, T. Hattori, H. Shimada, R. Mori, Y. Kazato, and M. Yuzawa, “Mycobacterium abscessus corneal ulcer following sutured clear corneal cataract incision,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 499–500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. K.-S. Yang, Y.-F. Chen, K.-K. Lin, and C.-H. Hsiao, “Mycobacterium keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Cornea, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 344–346, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. R. W. Zabel, G. Mintsioulis, and I. MacDonald, “Mycobacterium chelonei keratitis in a soft-contact-lens wearer,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 315–317, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. L. E. Zimmerman, L. Turner, and J. W. McTigue, “Mycobacterium fortuitum infection of the cornea. A report of to cases,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 596–601, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. R. Golen, E. M. Espana, and C. E. Margo, “Mycobacterium abscessus scleritis following intravitreous injection of bevacizumab,” JAMA Ophthalmology, vol. 131, no. 10, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. C.-H. Hsiao, J. J. Chen, S. C. Huang, H. K. Ma, P. Y. Chen, and R. J. Tsai, “Intrascleral dissemination of infectious scleritis following pterygium excision,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. D. T. L. Liu, V. Y. W. Lee, L. Chi-Lai, and D. S. C. Lam, “Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Mycobacterium chelonae coinfection of the extraocular scleral buckle explant,” Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 441–442, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. H. Metta, M. Corti, and R. Brunzini, “Disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae with scleritis, spondylodiscitis and spinal epidural abscess,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 260–262, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. N. Mohan, S. Kar, T. R. Padhi, S. Basu, S. Sharma, and T. P. Das, “Changing profile of organisms causing scleral buckle infections: a clinico-microbiological case series,” Retina, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 247–253, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. J. S. Nielsen, S. Blatt, J. I. Perlman, and R. G. Gieser, “Clinicopathologic case report: scleral buckle associated nontuberculous mycobacterial scleritis,” Seminars in Ophthalmology, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 101–104, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. O. Oz, D. H. Lee, S. M. Smetana, and L. Akduman, “A case of infected scleral buckle with Mycobacterium chelonae associated with chronic intraocular inflammation,” Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 65–67, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. J. Pope Jr., P. Sternberg Jr., N. J. McLane, D. W. Potts, and R. D. Stulting, “Mycobacterium chelonae scleral abscess after removal of a scleral buckle,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 557–558, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. C. E. Margo and P. R. Pavan, “Mycobacterium chelonae conjunctivitis and scleritis following vitrectomy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 1125–1128, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. W. E. Smiddy, D. Miller, and H. W. Flynn, “Scleral buckle infections due to atypical mycobacteria,” Retina, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 394–398, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. B. C. Edmonson, W. R. Morris, and F. D. Osborn, “Bacillary angiomatosis with cytomegaloviral and mycobacterial infections of the palpebral conjunctiva in a patient with AIDS,” Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 168–170, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. C.-J. Jeng, C.-H. Hsiao, F.-R. Hu, and Y.-C. Hou, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial conjunctival granuloma detected by nested polymerase chain reaction,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 760–761, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  146. R. Merani, S. Orekondy, T. Gottlieb et al., “Postoperative Mycobacterium abscessus nodular conjunctivitis,” Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 371–373, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. J. S. Ambler, D. M. Meisler, Z. N. Zakov, G. S. Hall, and T. J. Spech, “Endogenous Mycobacterium chelonae endophthalmitis,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 338–339, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. M. S. Benz, T. G. Murray, S. R. Dubovy, R. S. Katz, and C. W. G. Eifrig, “Endophthalmitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae abscessus after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 2, article 271, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. V. Chang, C. L. Karp, S. H. Yoo et al., “Mycobacterium abscessus endophthalmitis after descemet's stripping with automated endothelial keratoplasty,” Cornea, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 586–589, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. J. I. Cohen and S. J. Saragas, “Endophthalmitis due to Mycobacterium avium in a patient with AIDS,” Annals of ophthalmology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 47–51, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. C. Couto, S. Rossetti, A. Schlaen, E. Hurtado, L. D'alessandro, and D. A. Goldstein, “Chronic postoperative Mycobacterium gordonae endophthalmitis in a patient with phakic intraocular lens,” Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 491–494, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. A. M. Abu El-Asrar and K. F. Tabbara, “Chronic endophthalmitis after extracapsular cataract extraction caused by Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscessus,” Eye, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 798–801, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. S. J. Gedde, I. U. Scott, H. Tabandeh et al., “Late endophthalmitis associated with glaucoma drainage implants,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 1323–1327, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. K. Göbels, J. Best, M. Oette et al., “Ocular infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii in an AIDS patient,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 2501–2502, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. U. H. Grenzebach, H. Busse, M. Tötsch, and B. Dockhorn-Dworniczak, “Endophthalmitis induced by atypical mycobacterial infection,” German Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 202–206, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. N. Venkateswaran, G. Yeaney, M. Chung, and H. B. Hindman, “Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 8, pp. 837–842, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. V. Jain, P. Garg, S. Sharma, and G. K. Vemuganti, “Sutureless wound infection by unusual acid-fast organisms,” Cornea, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 615–618, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. L. C. V. Matieli, D. de Freitas, J. Sampaio, N. S. B. Moraes, M. C. Z. Yu, and A. L. Hofling-Lima, “Mycobacterium abscessus endophthalmitis: treatment dilemma and review of the literature,” Retina, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 826–829, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. P. Marín-Casanova, J. L. Calandria Amiguetti, P. García-Martos et al., “Endophthalmitis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 13, no. 9-10, pp. 800–802, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. S. Mutyala, J. P. Dieckert, and C. J. Papasian, “Mycobacterium fortuitum endophthalmitis,” Retina, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 122–124, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. D. Palani, L. T. Kulandai, M. H. Naraharirao, S. Guruswami, and B. Ramendra, “Application of polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism in typing ocular rapid-growing nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates from three patients with postoperative endophthalmitis,” Cornea, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 729–735, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. A. A. Ramaswamy, J. Biswas, V. Bhaskar, L. Gopal, R. Rajagopal, and H. N. Madhavan, “Postoperative Mycobacterium chelonae endophthalmitis after extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 1283–1286, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. A. Rao, B. Wallang, T. R. Padhy, R. Mittal, and S. Sharma, “Dual infection by streptococcus and atypical mycobacteria following Ahmed Glaucoma valve surgery,” Seminars in Ophthalmology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 233–235, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. N. E. Rolfe, C. Garcia, R. H. Widen, and S. P. Taylor, “Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium abscessus endophthalmitis,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 1089–1091, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. P. S. Rosenbaum, J. N. Mbekeani, and Y. Kress, “Atypical mycobacterial panophthalmitis seen with iris nodules,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 1524–1527, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. T. J. Roussel, W. H. Stern, D. F. Goodman, and J. P. Whitcher, “Postoperative mycobacterial endophthalmitis,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 403–406, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. S. Sinawat and Y. Yospaiboon, “Bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis in disseminated NTM infection: a case report,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 632–636, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. T. S. Spencer, M. P. Teske, and P. S. Bernstein, “Postcataract endophthalmitis caused by Mycobacterium goodii,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1252–1253, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. M. Stewart, S. Alvarez, W. Ginsburg, R. Shetty, W. McLain, and J. Sleater, “Visual recovery following Mycobacterium chelonae endophthalmitis,” Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 181–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. H. S. Uy, Q. D. Nguyen, M. L. Durand, B. Paton, and C. S. Foster, “Infectious crystalline keratopathy and endophthalmitis secondary to Mycobacterium abscessus in a monocular patient with Stevens-Johnson syndrome,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 209–210, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. K. R. Wilhelmus, “Nontuberculous Mycobacterial endophthalmitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 11, article 1663, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. D. Modi, D. Pyatetsky, D. P. Edward et al., “Mycobacterium haemophilum: a rare cause of endophthalmitis,” Retina, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1148–1151, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. V. G. Clever, “Choroidal involvement with Mycobacterium intracellulare,” Annals of Ophthalmology, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1409–1411, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. T. I. Kuznetcova, A. Sauty, and C. P. Herbort, “Uveitis with occult choroiditis due to Mycobacterium kansasii: limitations of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) tests (case report and mini-review on ocular non-tuberculous mycobacteria and IGRA cross-reactivity),” International Ophthalmology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. L.-J. Lai, S.-N. Chen, Y.-H. Kuo, J.-D. Ho, and C.-L. Ho, “Presumed choroidal atypical tuberculosis superinfected with cytomegalovirus retinitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient: a case report,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 463–468, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. E. Zamir, H. Hudson, R. R. Ober et al., “Massive mycobacterial choroiditis during highly active antiretroviral therapy: another immune-recovery uveitis?” Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 11, pp. 2144–2148, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. G. Clare and S. Mitchell, “Iris root abscess and necrotizing sclerokeratitis caused by mycobacterium abscessus and presenting as hemorrhagic anterior uveitis,” Cornea, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 255–257, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. R. Bhikoo, R. Bevan, and J. Sims, “Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis in a patient with disseminated mycobacterium avium complex,” Retinal Cases and Brief Reports, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 155–157, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. C.-F. Fong, C.-H. Tseng, F.-R. Hu, I.-J. Wang, W.-L. Chen, and Y.-C. Hou, “Clinical characteristics of microbial keratitis in a university hospital in Taiwan,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 329–336, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. R. Solomon, E. D. Donnenfeld, D. T. Azar et al., “Infectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: results of an ASCRS survey,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 2001–2006, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. F. Llovet, V. de Rojas, E. Interlandi et al., “Infectious keratitis in 204 586 LASIK procedures,” Ophthalmology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 232.e4–238.e4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. K. L. Winthrop, E. B. Steinberg, G. Holmes et al., “Epidemic and sporadic cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis associated with laser in situ keratomileusis,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 223–224, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. G. P. Holmes, G. B. Bond, R. C. Fader, and S. F. Fulcher, “A cluster of cases of Mycobacterium szulgai keratitis that occurred after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1039–1046, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. D. O. Girgis, C. L. Karp, and D. Miller, “Ocular infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: update on epidemiology and management,” Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 467–475, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. G. P. Wormser and C. Stratton, “Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th Edition Edited by Patrick R. Murray, Ellen Jo Baron, James H. Jorgensen, Marie Louise Landry, and Michael A. Pfaller Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2007 2488 pp., illustrated. $209.95 (hardcover),” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 153, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  186. B. A. Brown-Elliott, L. B. Mann, D. Hail, C. Whitney, and R. J. Wallace Jr., “Antimicrobial susceptibility of nontuberculous mycobacteria from eye infections,” Cornea, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 900–906, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. J.-Y. Hose, M.-J. Joo, S. Hyon, D. Sinha, J. D. Dick, and T. P. O'Brien, “Comparative efficacy of topical gatifloxacin with ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and clarithromycin in the treatment of experimental Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 122, no. 8, pp. 1166–1169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. M. A. Sarayba, N. Shamie, B. J. Reiser et al., “Fluoroquinolone therapy in Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis after lamellar keratectomy,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1396–1402, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. R. Abshire, P. Cockrum, J. Crider, and B. Schlech, “Topical antibacterial therapy for mycobacterial keratitis: potential for surgical prophylaxis and treatment,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. J. G. Ford, A. J. W. Huang, S. C. Pflugfelder, E. C. Alfonso, R. K. Forster, and D. Miller, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis in South Florida,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 9, pp. 1652–1658, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus