Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 165078, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/165078
Review Article

Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

Institute of Physiology-Centre for Physiology & Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstraße 17, 1090 Vienna, Austria

Received 15 March 2015; Accepted 19 April 2015

Academic Editor: Pasquale Pagliaro

Copyright © 2015 Stefan Heber and Ivo Volf. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Gawaz, F.-J. Neumann, I. Ott, A. Schiessler, and A. Schömig, “Platelet function in acute myocardial infarction treated with direct angioplasty,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 229–237, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. Ott, F.-J. Neumann, M. Gawaz, M. Schmitt, and A. Schömig, “Increased neutrophil-platelet adhesion in patients with unstable angina,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1239–1246, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. M. Smith, R. Pathansali, and P. M. W. Bath, “Platelets and stroke,” Vascular Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 165–172, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. G. Chamberlain, M. Tong, and D. G. Penington, “Properties of the exchangeable splenic platelets released into the circulation during exercise-induced thrombocytosis,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 161–168, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. G. Schmidt and J. W. Rasmussen, “Exercise-induced changes in the in vivo distribution of 111In-labelled platelets,” Scandinavian Journal of Haematology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 159–166, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Bakovic, N. Pivac, D. Eterovic et al., “The effects of low-dose epinephrine infusion on spleen size, central and hepatic circulation and circulating platelets,” Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 30–37, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. R. Bird, M. Linden, and J. A. Hawley, “Acute changes to biomarkers as a consequence of prolonged strenuous running,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 137–150, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. O. Pires, T. D. Noakes, A. E. Lima-Silva et al., “Cardiopulmonary, blood metabolite and rating of perceived exertion responses to constant exercises performed at different intensities until exhaustion,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 1119–1125, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Zouhal, C. Jacob, P. Delamarche, and A. Gratas-Delamarche, “Catecholamines and the effects of exercise, training and gender,” Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 401–423, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Bakovic, N. Pivac, D. Eterovic et al., “Changes in platelet size and spleen volume in response to selective and non-selective β-adrenoceptor blockade in hypertensive patients,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 441–446, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. P. Whittaker, M. D. Linden, and V. G. Coffey, “Effect of aerobic interval training and caffeine on blood platelet function,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 342–350, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Lippi, G. L. Salvagno, E. Danese, C. Tarperi, G. C. Guidi, and F. Schena, “Variation of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume after moderate endurance exercise,” Advances in Hematology, vol. 2014, Article ID 192173, 4 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. F. A. J. L. Scheer, A. D. Michelson, A. L. Frelinger III et al., “The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e24549, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Kratz, M. J. Wood, A. J. Siegel, J. R. Hiers, and E. M. van Cott, “Effects of marathon running on platelet activation markers: direct evidence for in vivo platelet activation,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 296–300, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. L. Chicharro, O. Sänchez, F. Bandrés et al., “Platelet aggregability in relation to the anaerobic threshold,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 251–257, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Aldemir and N. Kiliç, “The effect of time of day and exercise on platelet functions and platelet-neutrophil aggregates in healthy male subjects,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 280, no. 1-2, pp. 119–124, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. E. Peat, M. Dawson, A. Mckenzie, and W. S. Hillis, “The effects of acute dynamic exercise on haemostasis in first class Scottish football referees,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 573–578, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. S. Kestin, P. A. Ellis, M. R. Barnard, A. Errichetti, B. A. Rosner, and A. D. Michelson, “Effect of strenuous exercise on platelet activation state and reactivity,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1502–1511, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Lindemann, B. Klingel, A. Fisch, J. Meyer, and H. Darius, “Increased platelet sensitivity toward platelet inhibitors during physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 51–59, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J.-S. Wang and C.-H. Liao, “Moderate-intensity exercise suppresses platelet activation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte interaction with surface-adherent platelets under shear flow in men,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 587–594, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Coppola, L. Coppola, L. dalla Mora et al., “Vigorous exercise acutely changes platelet and B-lymphocyte CD39 expression,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1414–1419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J.-S. Wang, H.-L. Yen, and C.-M. Yang, “Warm-up exercise suppresses platelet-eosinophil/neutrophil aggregation and platelet-promoted release of eosinophil/neutrophil oxidant products enhanced by severe exercise in men,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 490–498, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Lamprecht, H. Moussalli, G. Ledinski et al., “Effects of a single bout of walking exercise on blood coagulation parameters in obese women,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Siess, R. Lorenz, P. Roth, and P. C. Weber, “Plasma catecholamines, platelet aggregation and associated thromboxane formation after physical exercise, smoking or norepinephrine infusion,” Circulation, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Kishi, T. Ashikaga, and F. Numano, “Inhibition of platelet aggregation by prostacyclin is attenuated after exercise in patients with angina pectoris,” American Heart Journal, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 291–297, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Cadroy, F. Pillard, K. S. Sakariassen, C. Thalamas, B. Boneu, and D. Riviere, “Strenuous but not moderate exercise increases the thrombotic tendency in healthy sedentary male volunteers,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 829–833, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. B. Knudsen, U. Brodthagen, J. Gormsen, R. Jordal, K. Nørregaard-Hansen, and P. E. Paulev, “Platelet function and fibrinolytic activity following distance running,” Scandinavian Journal of Haematology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 425–430, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. S. El-Sayed, “Effects of alcohol ingestion post-exercise on platelet aggregation,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 147–151, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. H. Madsen, M. K. Christiansen, E. B. Schmidt, T. S. Poulsen, and S. R. Kristensen, “Effect of exercise on platelet activation during aspirin or clopidogrel intake in healthy men,” Platelets, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 177–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Furui, N. Taniguchi, K. Yamauchi, I. Sotobata, H. Saito, and H. Inagaki, “Effects of treadmill exercise on platelet function, blood coagulability and fibrinolytic activity in patients with atrial fibrillation,” Japanese Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Ahmadizad and M. S. El-Sayed, “The effects of graded resistance exercise on platelet aggregation and activation,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1026–1032, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Feng, J. Murillo, P. Jadhav et al., “Upright posture and maximal exercise increase platelet aggregability and prostacyclin production in healthy male subjects,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 401–404, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S.-Y. Sakita, Y. Kishi, and F. Numano, “Acute vigorous exercise attenuates sensitivity of platelets to nitric oxide,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 461–471, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. G. Tozzi-Ciancarelli, M. Penco, and C. Di Massimo, “Influence of acute exercise on human platelet responsiveness: possible involvement of exercise-induced oxidative stress,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 266–272, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Ersöz, A. M. Zergeroğlu, H. Fıçıcılar et al., “Effect of submaximal and incremental upper extremity exercise on platelet function and the role of blood shear stress,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 108, no. 5-6, pp. 297–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Ersöz, A. M. Zergeroğlu, and A. Yakaryılmaz, “The effect of submaximal exercise on platelet aggregation during late follicular and midluteal phases in women,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 108, no. 2-3, pp. 147–150, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H.-C. Hsu, Y.-T. Lee, and M.-F. Chen, “Exercise shifts the platelet aggregation modulatory role from native to mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 933–939, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Kasuya, Y. Kishi, S.-Y. Sakita, F. Numano, and M. Isobe, “Acute vigorous exercise primes enhanced NO release in human platelets,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 225–232, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. Vucinic, I. Singh, F. J. Spargo, J. A. Hawley, and M. D. Linden, “Gamma tocopherol supplementation prevents exercise induced coagulation and platelet aggregation,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 196–199, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Ficicilar, A. M. Zergeroglu, D. Tekin, and G. Ersoz, “The effects of acute exercise on plasma antioxidant status and platelet response,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 111, no. 4-5, pp. 267–271, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. A. Hanke, A. Staib, K. Görlinger, M. Perrey, D. Dirkmann, and P. Kienbaum, “Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: a comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 59–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Perneby, N. H. Wallén, H. Hu, N. Li, and P. Hjemdahl, “Prothrombotic responses to exercise are little influenced by clopidogrel treatment,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 235–243, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. H. Wallén, A. H. Goodall, N. Li, and P. Hjemdahl, “Activation of haemostasis by exercise, mental stress and adrenaline: effects on platelet sensitivity to thrombin and thrombin generation,” Clinical Science, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Nailin, N. H. Wallén, and P. Hjemdahl, “Evidence for prothrombotic effects of exercise and limited protection by aspirin,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 13, pp. 1374–1379, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J.-S. Wang, C. J. Jen, H.-C. Kung, L.-J. Lin, T.-R. Hsiue, and H.-I. Chen, “Different effects of strenuous exercise and moderate exercise on platelet function in men,” Circulation, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2877–2885, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J.-S. Wang and S.-E. Chow, “Effects of exercise training and detraining on oxidized low-density lipoprotein-potentiated platelet function in men,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 1531–1537, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J.-S. Wang, C. J. Jen, and H.-I. Chen, “Effects of exercise training and deconditioning on platelet function in men,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1668–1674, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J.-S. Wang, C. J. Jen, and H.-I. Chen, “Effects of chronic exercise and deconditioning on platelet function in women,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 2080–2085, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J.-S. Wang, C. F. Yang, and M.-K. Wong, “Effect of strenuous arm crank exercise on platelet function in patients with spinal cord injury,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 210–216, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J.-S. Wang, C. F. Yang, M.-K. Wong, S.-E. Chow, and J.-K. Chen, “Effect of strenuous arm exercise on oxidized-LDL-potentiated platelet activation in individuals with spinal cord injury,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 118–123, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J.-S. Wang, Y.-S. Li, J.-C. Chen, and Y.-W. Chen, “Effects of exercise training and deconditioning on platelet aggregation induced by alternating shear stress in men,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 454–460, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Kitai, M. Nishikawa, T. Tanigawa et al., “Inhibition by combined therapy with ticlopidine and aspirin of enhanced platelet aggregation during physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 142, no. 2, article E1, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. Andreotti, G. A. Lanza, A. Sciahbasi et al., “Low-grade exercise enhances platelet aggregability in patients with obstructive coronary disease independently of myocardial ischemia,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 16–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. B. Harrison and M. Lordkipanidzé, “Clinical tests of platelet function,” in Platelets, A. D. Michelson, Ed., 2012. View at Google Scholar
  55. H. Ikarugi, T. Taka, S. Nakajima et al., “Norepinephrine, but epinephrine, enhances platelet reactivity and coagulation after exercise in humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 133–138, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Ikarugi, M. Shibata, S. Shibata, H. Ishii, T. Taka, and J. Yamamoto, “High intensity exercise enhances platelet reactivity to shear stress and coagulation during and after exercise,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 127–133, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Bonifazi, A. M. Aloisi, I. Ceccarelli et al., “Platelet adhesion and aggregation on polyethylene: effect of exhaustive exercise,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Cuzzolin, S. Lussignoli, F. Crivellente et al., “Influence of an acute exercise on neutrophil and platelet adhesion, nitric oxide plasma metabolites in inactive and active subjects,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 289–293, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J.-S. Wang and L.-J. Cheng, “Effect of strenuous, acute exercise on α2-adrenergic agonist- potentiated platelet activation,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1559–1565, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. Rocker, W. K. Drygas, and B. Heyduck, “Blood platelet activation and increase in thrombin activity following a marathon race,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 374–380, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Hurlen, I. Seljeflot, and H. Arnesen, “Increased platelet aggregability during exercise in patients with previous myocardial infarction. Lack of inhibition by aspirin,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 487–494, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. W. K. Drygas, “Changes in blood platelet function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic activity in response to moderate, exhaustive, and prolonged exercise,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. B. Davis, D. G. Boyd, M. E. McKinney, and C. C. Jones, “Effects of exercise and exercise conditioning on blood platelet function,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Möckel, N.-V. Ulrich, L. Röcker et al., “Exhaustive cycle exercise induces P-selectin expression, coagulation, and fibrinolysis activation in ultraendurance athletes,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 263–269, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Möckel, N.-V. Ulrich, J. Heller et al., “Platelet activation through triathlon competition in ultra-endurance trained athletes: impact of thrombin and plasmin generation and catecholamine release,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 337–343, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A.-A. Weber, H.-K. Heim, M. Schumacher, K. Schrör, and T. Hohlfeld, “Effects of selective cyclooxygenase isoform inhibition on systemic prostacyclin synthesis and on platelet function at rest and after exercise in healthy volunteers,” Platelets, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 379–385, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. Gkaliagkousi, E. Gavriilaki, E. Yiannaki et al., “Platelet activation in essential hypertension during exercise: pre- and post-treatment changes with an angiotensin ii receptor blocker,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 571–578, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Röcker, S. Günay, H.-C. Gunga et al., “Activation of blood platelets in response to maximal isometric exercise of the dominant arm,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 191–194, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Hilberg, V. Schmidt, D. Gläser, D. Schammne, W. Lösche, and H. H. W. Gabriel, “Platelet activity, sensitivity to agonist, and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation after long-term exercise,” Platelets, vol. 13, no. 5-6, pp. 273–277, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. Hilberg, K. Menzel, D. Gläser, S. Zimmermann, and H. H. W. Gabriel, “Exercise intensity: platelet function and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation in untrained subjects,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. T. Hilberg, E. Eichler, D. Gläser, V. Schmidt, and H. H. W. Gabriel, “Platelet activity, reactivity and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation before and after exhaustive or moderate exercise in patients with IDDM,” Platelets, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101–108, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. Constans, M. Seigneur, A. D. Blann et al., “Endothelial function, platelet activation and coagulation in lower limb occlusive arterial disease during treadmill exercise: correlations with transcutaneous oxygen pressure,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 557–561, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. R. Gibbs, A. D. Blann, E. Edmunds, R. D. S. Watson, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Effects of acute exercise on hemorheological, endothelial, and platelet markers in patients with chronic heart failure in sinus rhythm,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 724–729, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. E. Shantsila, L. D. Tapp, B. J. Wrigley et al., “The effects of exercise and diurnal variation on monocyte subsets and monocyte-platelet aggregates,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 832–839, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. V. Chaar, M. Romana, J. Tripette et al., “Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles,” Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Sossdorf, G. P. Otto, R. A. Claus, H. H. W. Gabriel, and W. Lösche, “Cell-derived microparticles promote coagulation after moderate exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1169–1176, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. K. Maruyama, T. Kadono, and E. Morishita, “Plasma levels of platelet-derived microparticles are increased after anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 585–587, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. Y.-W. Chen, J.-K. Chen, and J.-S. Wang, “Strenuous exercise promotes shear-induced thrombin generation by increasing the shedding of procoagulant microparticles from platelets,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 293–301, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Y.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, and J.-S. Wang, “Absolute hypoxic exercise training enhances in vitro thrombin generation by increasing procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles under high shear stress in sedentary men,” Clinical Science, vol. 124, no. 10, pp. 639–649, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J.-S. Wang, C. J. Jen, H.-L. Lee, and H.-I. Chen, “Effects of short-term exercise on female platelet function during different phases of the menstrual cycle,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1682–1686, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. M. Beaulieu and J. Freedman, “Inhibition of platelet function by the endothelium,” in Platelets, A. D. Michelson, Ed., 2012. View at Google Scholar
  82. Y. Hellsten, M. Nyberg, L. G. Jensen, and S. P. Mortensen, “Vasodilator interactions in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 590, no. 24, pp. 6297–6305, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. E. Freedman, J. Loscalzo, M. R. Barnard, C. Alpert, J. F. Keaney Jr., and A. D. Michelson, “Nitric oxide released from activated platelets inhibits platelet recruitment,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 350–356, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. E. Freedman, R. Sauter, E. M. Battinelli et al., “Deficient platelet-derived nitric oxide and enhanced hemostasis in mice lacking the NOSIII gene,” Circulation Research, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1416–1421, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. S. Wang, C.-C. Lin, J.-K. Chen, and M.-K. Wong, “Role of chronic exercise in decreasing oxidized LDL-potentiated platelet activation by enhancing platelet-derived no release and bioactivity in rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 66, no. 20, pp. 1937–1948, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Yajima, S. Nomura, K. Namba, M. Sekine, T. Hosaka, and F. Numano, “Plasma thromboxane B2, 6-keto PGE(1α) and cyclic nucleotides levels as related to treadmill exercise test in patients with ischemic heart disease,” Japanese Circulation Journal, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. K. Todd, A. H. Goldfarb, and B. T. Boyer, “Effect of exercise intensity on 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/TXB2 ratios,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 65, no. 4-5, pp. 487–493, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. A. Zoladz, J. Majerczak, K. Duda, and S. Chłopicki, “Endurance training increases exercise-induced prostacyclin release in young, healthy men - Relationship with VO2max,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 494–502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. F. Suhr, J. Brenig, R. Müller, H. Behrens, W. Bloch, and M. Grau, “Moderate exercise promotes human RBC-NOS activity, NO production and deformability through Akt kinase pathway,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e45982, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. S. Kansas, G. S. Wood, and T. F. Tedder, “Expression, distribution, and biochemistry of human CD39: role in activation-associated homotypic adhesion of lymphocytes,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 146, no. 7, pp. 2235–2244, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. Koziak, J. Sévigny, S. C. Robson, J. B. Siegel, and E. Kaczmarek, “Analysis of CD39/ATP diphosphohydrolase (ATPDase) expression in endothelial cells, platelets and leukocytes,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1538–1544, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. H. Zimmermann, “5′-nucleotidase: molecular structure and functional aspects,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 285, part 2, pp. 345–365, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. T. Mann, R. P. Lamberts, and M. I. Lambert, “Methods of prescribing relative exercise intensity: physiological and practical considerations,” Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 613–625, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. D. Michelson, P. A. Ellis, M. R. Barnard, G. B. Matic, A. F. Viles, and A. S. Kestin, “Downregulation of the platelet surface glycoprotein Ib-IX complex in whole blood stimulated by thrombin, adenosine diphosphate, or an in vivo wound,” Blood, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 770–779, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. Hourdille, E. Heilmann, R. Combrie, J. Winckler, K. J. Clemetson, and A. T. Nurden, “Thrombin induces a rapid redistribution of glycoprotein Ib-IX complexes within the membrane systems of activated human platelets,” Blood, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 1503–1513, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. D. Michelson, J. D. Wencel-Drake, A. S. Kestin, and M. R. Barnard, “Platelet activation results in a redistribution of glycoprotein IV (CD36),” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1193–1201, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. C. M. Albert, M. A. Mittleman, C. U. Chae, I.-M. Lee, C. H. Hennekens, and J. E. Manson, “Triggering of sudden death from cardiac causes by vigorous exertion,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 19, pp. 1355–1361, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. S. El-Sayed, A. Younesian, K. Rahman, F. M. Ismail, and Z. E.-S. Ali, “The effects of arm cranking exercise and training on platelet aggregation in male spinal cord individuals,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 129–136, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. Rauramaa, J. T. Salonen, K. Seppanen, J. M. Venäläinen, M. Ihanainen, and V. Rissanen, “Inhibition of platelet aggregability by moderate-intensity physical exercise: a randomized clinical trial in overweight men,” Circulation, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 939–944, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L. R. de Meirelles, A. C. Mendes-Ribeiro, M. A. P. Mendes et al., “Chronic exercise reduces platelet activation in hypertension: upregulation of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. Di Massimo, P. Scarpelli, M. Penco, and M. G. Tozzi-Ciancarelli, “Possible involvement of plasma antioxidant defences in training-associated decrease of platelet responsiveness in humans,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 406–412, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. E. Arosio, P. Minuz, M. Prior et al., “Vascular adhesion molecule-1 and markers of platelet function before and after a treatment with iloprost or a supervised physical exercise program in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 421–433, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. Lippi, M. Montagnana, G. L. Salvagno, M. Franchini, and G. C. Guidi, “Comparison of platelet function between sedentary individuals and competitive athletes at rest,” Thrombosis Journal, vol. 4, article 10, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D. M. Bramble and D. E. Lieberman, “Endurance running and the evolution of Homo,” Nature, vol. 432, no. 7015, pp. 345–352, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. H. J. Thijssen, E. A. Dawson, M. A. Black, M. T. E. Hopman, N. T. Cable, and D. J. Green, “Brachial artery blood flow responses to different modalities of lower limb exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1072–1079, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. Mohan, K. Koyoma, A. Thangasamy, H. Nakano, R. D. Glickman, and N. Mohan, “Low shear stress preferentially enhances IKK activity through selective sources of ROS for persistent activation of NF-κB in endothelial cells,” The American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. C362–C371, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. B. M. Prior, P. G. Lloyd, J. Ren et al., “Arteriogenesis: role of nitric oxide,” Endothelium, vol. 10, no. 4-5, pp. 207–216, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. D. J. Green, A. Spence, N. Rowley, D. H. J. Thijssen, and L. H. Naylor, “Vascular adaptation in athletes: is there an ‘athlete's artery’?” Experimental Physiology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 295–304, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. M. J. Durand and D. D. Gutterman, “Exercise and vascular function: how much is too much?” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 551–557, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. S. N. Willich, M. Lewis, H. Lowel et al., “Physical exertion as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 23, pp. 1684–1690, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. D. S. Siscovick, “Exercise and its role in sudden cardiac death,” Cardiology Clinics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 467–472, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. D. S. Siscovick, N. S. Weiss, R. H. Fletcher, and T. Lasky, “The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 311, no. 14, pp. 874–877, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. A. Mittleman, M. Maclure, G. H. Tofler, J. B. Sherwood, R. J. Goldberg, and J. E. Muller, “Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion—protection against triggering by regular exertion. Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study Investigators,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 23, pp. 1677–1683, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. H. Khan, S. Kunutsor, R. Rauramaa et al., “Cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of heart failure: a population-based follow-up study,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 180–188, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. P. Kokkinos and J. Myers, “Exercise and physical activity: clinical outcomes and applications,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 16, pp. 1637–1648, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. D. E. R. Warburton, C. W. Nicol, and S. S. D. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 174, no. 6, pp. 801–809, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus