Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 167642, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/167642
Research Article

Space Flight Effects on Antioxidant Molecules in Dry Tardigrades: The TARDIKISS Experiment

1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via D. Trentacoste 2, 20134 Milano, Italy
2Department of Education and Human Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via A. Allegri 9, 42121 Reggio Emilia, Italy
3Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/D, 41125 Modena, Italy

Received 10 July 2014; Accepted 22 September 2014

Academic Editor: Monica Monici

Copyright © 2015 Angela Maria Rizzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Rebecchi, T. Altiero, R. Guidetti et al., “Tardigrade resistance to space effects: First results of experiments on the LIFE-TARSE Mission on FOTON-M3 (September 2007),” Astrobiology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 581–591, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. R. Guidetti, A. M. Rizzo, T. Altiero, and L. Rebecchi, “What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration,” Planetary and Space Science, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 97–102, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Marthy, “Developmental biology of animal models under varied gravity conditions: a review,” Vie et Milieu, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 149–189, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Møbjerg, K. A. Halberg, A. Jørgensen et al., “Survival in extreme environments—on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 202, no. 3, pp. 409–420, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. R. Guidetti, T. Altiero, and L. Rebecchi, “On dormancy strategies in tardigrades,” Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 567–576, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. T. Altiero, R. Guidetti, V. Caselli, M. Cesari, and L. Rebecchi, “Ultraviolet radiation tolerance in hydrated and desiccated eutardigrades,” Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, vol. 49, supplement 1, pp. 104–110, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. I. Jönsson, E. Rabbow, R. O. Schill, M. Harms-Ringdahl, and P. Rettberg, “Tardigrades survive exposure to space in low Earth orbit,” Current Biology, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. R729–R731, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. L. Rebecchi, T. Altiero, M. Cesari et al., “Resistance of the anhydrobiotic eutardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi to space flight (LIFE-TARSE mission on FOTON-M3),” Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, vol. 49, supplement 1, pp. 98–103, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Persson, K. A. Halberg, A. Jørgensen, C. Ricci, N. Møbjerg, and R. M. Kristensen, “Extreme stress tolerance in tardigrades: surviving space conditions in low earth orbit,” Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, vol. 49, supplement 1, pp. 90–97, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Altiero, L. Rebecchi, and R. Bertolani, “Phenotypic variations in the life history of two clones of Macrobiotus richtersi (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae),” Hydrobiologia, vol. 558, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Vukich, P. L. Ganga, D. Cavalieri et al., “BIOKIS: a model payload for multisciplinary experiments in microgravity,” Microgravity Science and Technology, vol. 24, pp. 397–409, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Rizzo, L. Adorni, G. Montorfano, F. Rossi, and B. Berra, “Antioxidant metabolism of Xenopus laevis embryos during the first days of development,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology—B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 94–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Paoletti and A. Mocali, “Determination of superoxide dismutase activity by purely chemical system based on NAD(P)H oxidation,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 186, pp. 209–220, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Aebi, “Catalase in vitro,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 105, pp. 121–126, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. C. Pinto, A. M. Mata, and J. Lopez-barea, “Reversible inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutathione reductase under reducing conditions,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. R. Prohaska and H. E. Ganther, “Selenium and glutathione peroxidase in developing rat brain,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1379–1387, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. W. Griffith, “Glutathione and glutathione disulphide,” in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, H. U. Bergmeyer, Ed., vol. 3, pp. 521–529, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  19. H. E. Wey, L. Pyron, and M. Woolery, “Essential fatty acid deficiency in cultured human keratinocytes attenuates toxicity due to lipid peroxidation,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. J. Folch, M. Lees, and G. H. S. Stanley, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 497–509, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. B. França, A. D. Panek, and E. C. A. Eleutherio, “Oxidative stress and its effects during dehydration,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology—A Molecular and Integrative Physiology, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 621–631, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. R. Cruz de Carvalho, M. Catalá, J. Marques da Silva, C. Branquinho, and E. Barreno, “The impact of dehydration rate on the production and cellular location of reactive oxygen species in an aquatic moss,” Annals of Botany, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1007–1016, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. I. Kranner and S. Birtić, “A modulating role for antioxidants in desiccation tolerance,” Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 734–740, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. R. Cornette and T. Kikawada, “The induction of anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid: current status of our knowledge,” IUBMB Life, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 419–429, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. L. Rebecchi, “Dry up and survive: the role of antioxidant defences in anhydrobiotic organisms,” Journal of Limnology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 62–72, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. M. Rizzo, M. Negroni, T. Altiero et al., “Antioxidant defences in hydrated and desiccated states of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus