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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 168294, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/168294
Research Article

Potential of Newborn and Adult Stem Cells for the Production of Vascular Constructs Using the Living Tissue Sheet Approach

1Université Laval Experimental Organogenesis Center/LOEX, Enfant-Jesus Hospital, 1401 18th rue, Québec, QC, Canada G1J 1Z4
2Regenerative Medicine Section, CHU de Québec Research Centre, Québec, QC, Canada G1J 1Z4
3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6
4Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center, 415 Assomption boulevard, Montreal, QC, Canada H1T 2M4
5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1J4
6Quebec Center for Functional Materials (CQMF), Office 2634, Alexandre-Vachon Building, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6
7Bordeaux Segalen University, INSERM-U1026, 146 Léo Saignat Street, 33000 Bordeaux, France

Received 19 February 2015; Revised 23 April 2015; Accepted 24 April 2015

Academic Editor: Magali Cucchiarini

Copyright © 2015 Jean-Michel Bourget et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bypass surgeries using native vessels rely on the availability of autologous veins and arteries. An alternative to those vessels could be tissue-engineered vascular constructs made by self-organized tissue sheets. This paper intends to evaluate the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from two different sources: (1) bone marrow-derived MSCs and (2) umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs. When cultured in vitro, a proportion of those cells differentiated into smooth muscle cell- (SMC-) like cells and expressed contraction associated proteins. Moreover, these cells assembled into manipulable tissue sheets when cultured in presence of ascorbic acid. Tubular vessels were then produced by rolling those tissue sheets on a mandrel. The architecture, contractility, and mechanical resistance of reconstructed vessels were compared with tissue-engineered media and adventitia produced from SMCs and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Histology revealed a collagenous extracellular matrix and the contractile responses measured for these vessels were stronger than dermal fibroblasts derived constructs although weaker than SMCs-derived constructs. The burst pressure of bone marrow-derived vessels was higher than SMCs-derived ones. These results reinforce the versatility of the self-organization approach since they demonstrate that it is possible to recapitulate a contractile media layer from MSCs without the need of exogenous scaffolding material.