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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 171945, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/171945
Review Article

Cellular Responses Evoked by Different Surface Characteristics of Intraosseous Titanium Implants

1Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
2Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel

Received 14 November 2014; Accepted 29 January 2015

Academic Editor: George Babis

Copyright © 2015 Liviu Feller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The properties of biomaterials, including their surface microstructural topography and their surface chemistry or surface energy/wettability, affect cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The nanotopography of moderately rough implant surfaces enhances the production of biological mediators in the peri-implant microenvironment with consequent recruitment of differentiating osteogenic cells to the implant surface and stimulates osteogenic maturation. Implant surfaces with moderately rough topography and with high surface energy promote osteogenesis, increase the ratio of bone-to-implant contact, and increase the bonding strength of the bone to the implant at the interface. Certain features of implant surface chemistry are also important in enhancing peri-implant bone wound healing. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the more important features of titanium implant surfaces which have an impact on osseointegration.