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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 174050, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/174050
Review Article

Glu504Lys Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene and the Risk of Human Diseases

1Department of Bioengineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Shandong 264209, China
2Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Shandong 264209, China

Received 7 May 2015; Revised 29 July 2015; Accepted 19 August 2015

Academic Editor: Jing Zhang

Copyright © 2015 Yan Zhao and Chuancai Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. The Glu504Lys single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ALDH2 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the East Asian populations, causes defect in the enzyme activity of ALDH2, leading to alterations in acetaldehyde metabolism and alcohol-induced “flushing” syndrome. Evidence suggests that ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP is a potential candidate genetic risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the association between ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP and the development of these chronic diseases appears to be affected by the interaction between the SNP and lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption as well as by the presence of other genetic variations.