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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 179597, 10 pages
Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

1Department of Biotransformation, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Fryderyka Joliot-Curie 14a, 50-383 Wroclaw, Poland
2Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63-77, 51-148 Wroclaw, Poland
3Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdańsk, Kładki 24, 80-822 Gdańsk, Poland
4Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
5Phage Consultants, Tenisowa 10/5, 80-180 Gdańsk, Poland
6Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Kładki 24, 80-822 Gdańsk, Poland

Received 6 July 2014; Revised 15 September 2014; Accepted 25 September 2014

Academic Editor: Dimitrios Karpouzas

Copyright © 2015 Anna Krasowska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages) or noncontractile (ARπ phage) tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0) and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0) pH.