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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 240698, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/240698
Research Article

The Benefit of a Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells Concentrate in addition to an Inorganic Scaffold for Bone Regeneration: An In Vitro Study

1Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto (FMUP), Hospital de São João, Largo Hernâni Monteiro, 4200 Porto, Portugal
2CEMUC, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3Faculdade de Medicina Dentária da Universidade do Porto (FMDUP), Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200-393 Porto, Portugal
4University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), Kaufman Building, Suite 1011, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

Received 13 July 2014; Revised 9 September 2014; Accepted 1 October 2014

Academic Editor: Antonio Salgado

Copyright © 2015 J. Torres et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. This work compares the osteoblastic behaviour of a bone marrow (BM) aspirate and a prepared BM concentrate of nucleated cells associated with a glass reinforced hydroxyapatite composite (GRHC) in a microporous pellet formulation. Methods. BM aspirate (30 mL) was collected during 3 orthopedic surgical procedures, and a concentration system was used to achieve 3 rapid preparations of a concentrate of nucleated cells (3 mL) from the BM aspirates. The BM aspirates (53% cell viability; nucleated cell/mL) and the BM concentrates (76% cell viability; nucleated cell/mL) were cultured over glass reinforced hydroxyapatite pellets, at the same volume/mass ratio, for 30 days. Cultures performed in standard tissue culture plates were used as control. Results. The colonized BM concentrate/material constructs exhibited a representative osteoblastic proliferation/differentiation pathway, evidenced by a high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of collagen type 1, ALP, BMP-2, M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG, and formation of a calcium phosphate mineralized matrix. A clear improved behaviour was noticed compared to the BM aspirate/material constructs. Conclusions. The results suggest the benefit of using an autologous BM concentrate/material construct in the clinical setting, in bone regeneration applications.