Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 247865, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/247865
Review Article

The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cardiac Computed Tomography in the Assessment of Left Atrial Anatomy, Size, and Function

1Second Department of Medicine-Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
2International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
3Department of Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

Received 15 December 2014; Revised 15 February 2015; Accepted 18 February 2015

Academic Editor: Giovanni Di Salvo

Copyright © 2015 Petr Kuchynka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. D. Hoit, “Left atrial size and function: role in prognosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 493–505, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. H. Rahimtoola, A. Ehsani, M. Z. Sinno, H. S. Loeb, K. M. Rosen, and R. M. Gunnar, “Left atrial transport function in myocardial infarction. Importance of its booster pump function,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 686–694, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. S. M. Tsang, M. E. Barnes, K. R. Bailey et al., “Left atrial volume: important risk marker of incident atrial fibrillation in 1655 older men and women,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 467–475, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. E. Barnes, Y. Miyasaka, J. B. Seward et al., “Left atrial volume in the prediction of first ischemic stroke in an elderly cohort without atrial fibrillation,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1008–1014, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Osranek, F. Bursi, K. R. Bailey et al., “Left atrial volume predicts cardiovascular events in patients originally diagnosed with lone atrial fibrillation: three-decade follow-up,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 2556–2561, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. S. M. Tsang, W. P. Abhayaratna, M. E. Barnes et al., “Prediction of cardiovascular outcomes with left atrial size: is volume superior to area or diameter?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1018–1023, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. M. MacEira, J. Cosín-Sales, M. Roughton, S. K. Prasad, and D. J. Pennell, “Reference left atrial dimensions and volumes by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 12, no. 1, article 65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. C. Y. To, S. D. Flamm, T. H. Marwick, and A. L. Klein, “Clinical utility of multimodality la imaging: assessment of size, function, and structure,” JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 788–798, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Haemers, P. Claus, and R. Willems, “The use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic workup and treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Cardiology Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 658937, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. P. Pazos-López, E. Pozo, M. E. Siqueira et al., “Value of CMR for the differential diagnosis of cardiac masses,” JACC Cardiovasc Imaging, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 896–905, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. F. Braggion-Santos, M. Koenigkam-Santos, S. R. Teixeira, G. J. Volpe, H. S. Trad, and A. Schmidt, “Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of cardiac masses,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 263–272, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Matsuda and Y. Matsuda, “Mechanism of left atrial enlargement related to ventricular diastolic impairment in hypertension,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 954–959, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. G. Modena, N. Muia Jr., F. A. Sgura, R. Molinari, A. Castelli, and R. Rossi, “Left atrial size is the major predictor of cardiac death and overall clinical outcome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a long term follow up study,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 553–560, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D'Agostino, A. J. Belanger, P. A. Wolf, and D. Levy, “Left atrial size and the risk of stroke and death: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 835–841, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. E. Møller, G. S. Hillis, J. K. Oh et al., “Left atrial volume: a powerful predictor of survival after acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 17, pp. 2207–2212, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Fatema, M. E. Barnes, K. R. Bailey et al., “Minimum vs. maximum left atrial volume for prediction of first atrial fibrillation or flutter in an elderly cohort: a prospective study,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 282–286, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. C. P. Appleton, J. M. Galloway, M. S. Gonzalez, M. Gaballa, and M. A. Basnight, “Estimation of left ventricular filling pressures using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in adult patients with cardiac disease. Additional value of analyzing left atrial size, left atrial ejection fraction and the difference in duration of pulmonary venous and mitral flow velocity at atrial contraction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1972–1982, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Hoit, “Assessment of echocardiographic left atrial size: how accurate do we need to be?” JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 778–780, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. V. M. Järvinen, M. M. Kupari, P. E. Hekali, and V.-P. Poutanen, “Right atrial MR imaging studies of cadaveric atrial casts and comparison with right and left atrial volumes and function in healthy subjects,” Radiology, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 137–142, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. F. R. Agner, J. T. Kühl, J. J. Linde et al., “Assessment of left atrial volume and function in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation: comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 320-slice multi-detector computed tomography, and transthoracic echocardiography,” European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 532–540, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. J. McMurray, S. Adamopoulos, S. D. Anker, A. Auricchio, and M. Böhm, “ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: the task force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 803–869, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Gulati, T. F. Ismail, A. Jabbour et al., “Clinical utility and prognostic value of left atrial volume assessment by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 660–670, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Jahnke, J. Fischer, J. G. Mirelis et al., “Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for accurate sizing of the left atrium: predictability of pulmonary vein isolation success in patients with atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 455–463, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. E. Hudsmith, S. E. Petersen, J. M. Francis, M. D. Robson, and S. Neubauer, “Normal human left and right ventricular and left atrial dimensions using steady state free precession magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 775–782, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. B. Sievers, S. Kirchberg, U. Franken et al., “Determination of normal gender-specific left atrial dimensions by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 677–683, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. L. Anderson, B. D. Horne, and D. J. Pennell, “Atrial dimensions in health and left ventricular disease using cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 671–675, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Habibi, H. Chahal, A. Opdahl et al., “Association of CMR-measured LA function with heart failure development: results from the MESA study,” JACC Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 570–579, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. A. Ahtarovski, K. K. Iversen, J. T. Lønborg, P. L. Madsen, T. Engstrøm, and N. Vejlstrup, “Left atrial and ventricular function during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress in healthy young and elderly as evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 303, no. 12, pp. H1469–H1473, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Kaminski, K. Steel, M. Jerosch-Herold et al., “Strong cardiovascular prognostic implication of quantitative left atrial contractile function assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic hypertension,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 13, p. 42, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. J. T. Kowallick, S. Kutty, F. Edelmann et al., “Quantification of left atrial strain and strain rate using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance myocardial feature tracking: a feasibility study,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 60, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. K. A. Ellenbogen and M. A. Wood, “Ablation of atrial fibrillation: awaiting the new paradigm,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 198–200, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  32. K. L. Moore, The Developing Human, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1988.
  33. C. Pappone and V. Santinelli, “Atrial fibrillation ablation: state of the art,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 12A, pp. 59L–64L, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Calkins, M. R. Reynolds, P. Spector et al., “Treatment of atrial fibrillation with antiarrhythmic drugs or radiofrequency ablation: two systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses,” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 349–361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Saremi and M. Tafti, “The role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in ablation procedures for treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 125–156, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Meng, D. C. Peters, J. M. Hsing et al., “Late gadolinium enhancement of the esophagus is common on cardiac MR several months after pulmonary vein isolation: preliminary observations,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 661–666, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. A. Aljaroudi, W. S. Saliba, O. M. Wazni, and W. A. Jaber, “Role of cardiac computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in guiding management and treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation: state of the art review,” Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 426–442, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Ohyama, N. Hosomi, T. Takahashi et al., “Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography in detection of thrombus in the left atrial appendage,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2436–2439, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. H. Hauser, D. C. Peters, J. V. Wylie, and W. J. Manning, “Evaluating the left atrium by magnetic resonance imaging,” Europace, vol. 10, supplement 3, pp. iii22–iii27, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. T. Dill, T. Neumann, O. Ekinci et al., “Pulmonary vein diameter reduction after radiofrequency catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation evaluated by contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 845–850, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Arentz, N. Jander, J. von Rosenthal et al., “Incidence of pulmonary vein stenosis 2 years after radiofrequency catheter ablation of refractory atrial fibrillation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 963–969, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. B. Saad, A. Rossillo, C. P. Saad et al., “Pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation: functional characterization, evolution, and influence of the ablation strategy,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 25, pp. 3102–3107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Kato, L. Lickfett, G. Meininger et al., “Pulmonary vein anatomy in patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: lessons learned by use of magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 15, pp. 2004–2010, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. Hof, K. Chilukuri, A. Arbab-Zadeh et al., “Does left atrial volume and pulmonary venous anatomy predict the outcome of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation?” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1005–1010, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. A. W. Mulder, M. C. E. F. Wijffels, E. F. D. Wever, and L. V. A. Boersma, “Pulmonary vein anatomy and long-term outcome after multi-electrode pulmonary vein isolation with phased radiofrequency energy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation,” Europace, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1557–1561, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Anselmino, M. Scaglione, A. Blandino et al., “Pulmonary veins branching pattern, assessed by magnetic resonance, does not affect transcatheter atrial fibrillation ablation outcome,” Acta Cardiologica, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 665–674, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Schmidt, U. Dorwarth, F. Straube et al., “Cryoballoon in AF ablation: impact of PV ovality on AF recurrence,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. B. D. Atwater, T. W. Wallace, H. W. Kim et al., “Pulmonary vein contraction before and after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 169–174, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. A. Syed, D. C. Peters, H. Rashid, and A. E. Arai, “Pulmonary vein imaging: comparison of 3D magnetic resonance angiography with 2D cine MRI for characterizing anatomy and size,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 355–360, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Daccarett, C. J. McGann, N. W. Akoum, R. S. MacLeod, and N. F. Marrouche, “MRI of the left atrium: predicting clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 105–111, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. J. Kim, E. Wu, A. Rafael et al., “The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 20, pp. 1445–1453, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. D. Boudoulas, I. A. Paraskevaidis, H. Boudoulas, and F. K. Triposkiadis, “The left atrium: from the research laboratory to the clinic,” Cardiology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. R. S. Oakes, T. J. Badger, E. G. Kholmovski et al., “Detection and quantification of left atrial structural remodeling with delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 13, pp. 1758–1767, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. V. Wylie Jr., D. C. Peters, V. Essebag, W. J. Manning, M. E. Josephson, and T. H. Hauser, “Left atrial function and scar after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 656–662, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. J. McGann, E. G. Kholmovski, R. S. Oakes et al., “New magnetic resonance imaging-based method for defining the extent of left atrial wall injury after the ablation of atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 1263–1271, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Arujuna, R. Karim, D. Caulfield et al., “Acute pulmonary vein isolation is achieved by a combination of reversible and irreversible atrial injury after catheter ablation: evidence from magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 691–700, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. J. Badger, M. Daccarett, N. W. Akoum et al., “Evaluation of left atrial lesions after initial and repeat atrial fibrillation ablation; lessons learned from delayed-enhancement MRI in repeat ablation procedures,” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 249–259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Bertaglia, G. Brandolino, F. Zoppo, F. Zerbo, and P. Pascotto, “Integration of three-dimensional left atrial magnetic resonance images into a real-time electroanatomic mapping system: validation of a registration method,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 273–282, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. M. Kistler, K. Rajappan, M. Jahngir et al., “The impact of CT image integration into an electroanatomic mapping system on clinical outcomes of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1093–1101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Caponi, A. Corleto, M. Scaglione et al., “Ablation of atrial fibrillation: does the addition of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of the left atrium to electroanatomic mapping improve the clinical outcome?” Europace, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1098–1104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Abbara, A. Arbab-Zadeh, T. Q. Callister et al., “SCCT guidelines for performance of coronary computed tomographic angiography: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee,” Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 190–204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. J. Park, J. I. Jung, Y.-S. Oh, and H.-J. Youn, “Assessment of the structural remodeling of the left atrium by 64-multislice cardiac CT: comparative studies in controls and patients with atrial fibrillation,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 181–186, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Nakamura, N. Funabashi, M. Uehara et al., “Left atrial wall thickness in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by multislice-CT is initial marker of structural remodeling and predictor of transition from paroxysmal to chronic form,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 139–147, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Taina, M. Korhonen, M. Haataja et al., “Morphological and volumetric analysis of left atrial appendage and left atrium: cardiac computed tomography-based reproducibility assessment,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, Article ID e101580, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. L. Di Biase, P. Santangeli, M. Anselmino et al., “Does the left atrial appendage morphology correlate with the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation? Results from a multicenter study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 531–538, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. O. Balli, K. Aytemirb, and M. Karcaaltincabaa, “Multidetector CT of left atrium,” European Journal of Radiolog, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. e37–e46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Y. Shin, S. H. Kwon, and J. H. Oh, “Anatomical analysis of incidental left atrial diverticula in patients with suspected coronary artery disease using 64-channel multidetector CT,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 961–965, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Incedayi, E. Öztürk, G. Sönmez et al., “The incidence of left atrial diverticula in coronary CT angiography,” Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 542–546, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D'Agostino, A. J. Belanger, P. A. Wolf, and D. Levy, “Left atrial size and the risk of stroke and death. The Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 835–841, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. R. Kizer, J. N. Bella, V. Palmieri et al., “Left atrial diameter as an independent predictor of first clinical cardiovascular events in middle-aged and elderly adults: the Strong Heart Study (SHS),” American Heart Journal, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 412–418, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. T. Kühl, J. Lønborg, A. Fuchs et al., “Assessment of left atrial volume and function: a comparative study between echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi slice computed tomography,” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1061–1071, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Kataoka, N. Funabashi, A. Takahashi et al., “Quantitative evaluation of left atrial volumes and ejection fraction by 320-slice computed-tomography in comparison with three- and two-dimensional echocardiography: a single-center retrospective-study in 22 subjects,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Z. Wen, Z. Zhang, W. Yu, Z. Fan, J. Du, and B. Lv, “Assessing the left atrial phasic volume and function with dual-source CT: comparison with 3T MRI,” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 26, supplement 1, pp. 83–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Rohner, M. Brinkert, N. Kawel et al., “Functional assessment of the left atrium by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography using a novel dedicated analysis tool: initial validation studies in comparison with computed tomography,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 497–505, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. A. Mahabadi, M. H. Geisel, N. Lehmann et al., “Association of computed tomography-derived left atrial size with major cardiovascular events in the general population: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 318–323, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. Christiaens, N. Varroud-Vial, P. Ardilouze et al., “Real three-dimensional assessment of left atrial and left atrial appendage volumes by 64-slice spiral computed tomography in individuals with or without cardiovascular disease,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. K. H. Mortensen, D. Gopalan, and A. Balan, “Atrial masses on multidetector computed tomography,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. e164–e175, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. X. Wu, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Ding, and J. Yan, “Computed tomography for detecting left atrial thrombus: a meta-analysis,” Archives of Medical Science, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 943–951, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. G. M. Feuchtner, W. Dichtl, J. O. Bonatti et al., “Diagnostic accuracy of cardiac 64-slice computed tomography in detecting atrial thrombi: comparative study with transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac surgery,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 794–801, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Hur, J. K. Young, H.-J. Lee et al., “Left atrial appendage thrombi in stroke patients: detection with two-phase cardiac CT angiography versus transesophageal echocardiography,” Radiology, vol. 251, no. 3, pp. 683–690, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Hur, Y. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee et al., “Dual-enhanced cardiac CT for detection of left atrial appendage thrombus in patients with stroke: a prospective comparison study with transesophageal echocardiography,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2471–2477, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. Hur, H.-N. Pak, Y. J. Kim et al., “Dual-enhancement cardiac computed tomography for assessing left atrial thrombus and pulmonary veins before radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 238–244, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. E. M. Marom, J. E. Herndon, Y. H. Kim, and H. P. McAdams, “Variations in pulmonary venous drainage to the left atrium: implications for radiofrequency ablation,” Radiology, vol. 230, no. 3, pp. 824–829, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. F. Tops, E. E. van der Wall, M. J. Schalij, and J. J. Bax, “Multi-modality imaging to assess left atrial size, anatomy and function,” Heart, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. 1461–1470, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Y.-H. Kim, E. M. Marom, J. E. Herndon II, and H. P. McAdams, “Pulmonary vein diameter, cross-sectional area, and shape: CT analysis,” Radiology, vol. 235, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. L. Packer, P. Keelan, T. M. Munger et al., “Clinical presentation, investigation, and management of pulmonary vein stenosis complicating ablation for atrial fibrillation,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 546–554, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. R. Holmes Jr., K. H. Monahan, and D. Packer, “Pulmonary vein stenosis complicating ablation for atrial fibrillation: clinical spectrum and interventional considerations,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 267–276, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. Pürerfellner and M. Martinek, “Pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 484–490, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus