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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 248976, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/248976
Research Article

Role of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins in Testicular Function and Male Fertility: Effects of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Administration in Experimental Varicocele

1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, AOU Policlinico “G. Martino”, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
2Department of Paediatric, Gynaecological, Microbiological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Messina, AOU Policlinico “G. Martino”, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
3Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, AOU Policlinico “G. Martino”, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
4Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, AOU Policlinico “G. Martino”, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy

Received 23 February 2015; Revised 20 April 2015; Accepted 21 April 2015

Academic Editor: Joilson O. Martins

Copyright © 2015 Letteria Minutoli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and survivin might play an important role in testicular function. We investigated the effect of PDRN, an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, on testicular NAIP and survivin expression in an experimental model of varicocele. After the creation of experimental varicocele (28 days), adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of the following treatments lasting 21 days: vehicle, PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily), PDRN + 3,7-dimethyl-propargylxanthine (DMPX, a specific adenosine A2A-receptor antagonist, 0.1 mg/kg i.p., daily), varicocelectomy, and varicocelectomy + PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily). Sham-operated animals were used as controls. Animals were then euthanized and testis expression of NAIP and survivin was evaluated through qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Spermatogenetic activity was also assessed. NAIP and survivin expressions were significantly reduced following varicocele induction when compared to sham animals whereas PDRN-treated rats showed an increase in NAIP and survivin levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed an enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization following PDRN treatment. Moreover, administration of PDRN significantly restored spermatogenic function in varicocele rats. PDRN may represent a rational therapeutic option for accelerating recovery from depressed testicular function through a strategic modulation of apoptosis in experimental varicocele.