Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 263131, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/263131
Research Article

Thymoquinone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Exhibited Cytotoxicity towards Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines (HeLa and SiHa)

1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 10 August 2014; Revised 24 November 2014; Accepted 27 November 2014

Academic Editor: Wan-Liang Lu

Copyright © 2015 Wei Keat Ng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Natarajan, R. Thamaraiselvan, H. Lingaiah, P. Srinivasan, and B. M. Periyasamy, “Effect of flavonone hesperidin on the apoptosis of human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7,” Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. A. Ahmad, A. Husain, M. Mujeeb et al., “A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: a miracle herb,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 337–352, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Y. Latifah, W. K. Ng, G. Al-Naqeeb, and I. Maznah, “Cytotoxicity of thymoquinone (TQ) from Nigella sativa towards human cervical carcinoma cell (HeLa),” Journal of Pharmacy Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 585–589, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  5. W. K. Ng, L. S. Yazan, and M. Ismail, “Thymoquinone from Nigella sativa was more potent than cisplatin in eliminating of SiHa cells via apoptosis with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein,” Toxicology In Vitro, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1392–1398, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. M. Motaghed, F. M. Al-Hassan, and S. S. Hamid, “Cellular responses with thymoquinone treatment in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7,” Pharmacognosy Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 200–206, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. S. Rajput, B. N. P. Kumar, S. Sarkar et al., “Targeted apoptotic effects of thymoquinone and tamoxifen on XIAP mediated Akt regulation in breast cancer,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e61342, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. S. A. Pathan, G. K. Jain, S. M. A. Zaidi et al., “Stability-indicating ultra-performance liquid chromatography method for the estimation of thymoquinone and its application in biopharmaceutical studies,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 613–620, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. M. Khader, N. Bresgen, and P. M. Eckl, “In vitro toxicological properties of thymoquinone,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 129–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. B. Mognetti, A. Barberis, S. Marino et al., “In vitro enhancement of anticancer activity of paclitaxel by a Cremophor free cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulation,” Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, vol. 74, no. 1–4, pp. 201–210, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. W. How, R. Abdullah, and R. Abbasalipourkabir, “Physicochemical properties of nanostructured lipid carriers as colloidal carrier system stabilized with polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1684–1689, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. H. Müller, K. Mäder, and S. Gohla, “Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery—a review of the state of the art,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 161–177, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Y. Latifah, W. K. Ng, A. Rasedee, and C. W. How, “Thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TQ-NLC) and uses thereof,” Malaysia patent registration No. PI2012001818, 2012.
  14. C.-Y. Zhuang, N. Li, M. Wang et al., “Preparation and characterization of vinpocetine loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for improved oral bioavailability,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 394, no. 1-2, pp. 179–185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 55–63, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. H. Müller, M. Radtke, and S. A. Wissing, “Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers,” in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, H. S. Nalwa, Ed., pp. 43–56, American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. B. Gupta, “Fundamentals of drug nanoparticles,” in Drug and the Pharmaceutical Sciences: Nanoparticle Technology for Drug Delivery, R. B. Gupta and U. B. Kompella, Eds., pp. 1–18, Taylor and Francis, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. zur Mühlen, C. Schwarz, and W. Mehnert, “Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery—drug release and release mechanism,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 149–155, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Joshi and V. Patravale, “Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) based gel of celecoxib,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 346, no. 1-2, pp. 124–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. A. Tripathi, R. Gupta, and S. A. Saraf, “PLGA nanoparticles of anti tubercular drug: drug loading and release studies of a water in-soluble drug,” International Journal of PharmTech Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 2116–2123, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Albanese and W. C. W. Chan, “Effect of gold nanoparticle aggregation on cell uptake and toxicity,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 5478–5489, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. G. Rubasinghege, R. W. Lentz, H. Park, M. M. Scherer, and V. H. Grassian, “Nanorod dissolution quenched in the aggregated state,” Langmuir, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1524–1527, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. L. Kvítek, A. Panáček, J. Soukupová et al., “Effect of surfactants and polymers on stability and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs),” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 15, pp. 5825–5834, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. P. Thatipamula, C. R. Palem, R. Gannu, S. Mudragada, and M. R. Yamsani, “Formulation and in vitro characterization of domperidone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers,” DARU, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. V. Teeranachaideekul, E. B. Souto, V. B. Junyaprasert, and R. H. Müller, “Cetyl palmitate-based NLC for topical delivery of Coenzyme Q(10)—development, physicochemical characterization and in vitro release studies,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 141–148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. G. A. Burdock and I. G. Carabin, “Generally recognized as safe (GRAS): history and description,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. E. B. Souto, S. A. Wissing, C. M. Barbosa, and R. H. Müller, “Development of a controlled release formulation based on SLN and NLC for topical clotrimazole delivery,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. V. Jenning, A. F. Thünemann, and S. H. Gohla, “Characterisation of a novel solid lipid nanoparticle carrier system based on binary mixtures of liquid and solid lipids,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 167–177, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Y. Fang, C. L. Fang, C. H. Liu, and Y. H. Su, “Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC),” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 633–640, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. M. Bartucci, C. Morelli, L. Mauro, S. Ando', and E. Surmacz, “Differential insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling and function in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 18, pp. 6747–6754, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C.-S. Lai, R. H. M. H. Mas, N. K. Nair, M. I. A. Majid, S. M. Mansor, and V. Navaratnam, “Typhonium flagelliforme inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and induces apoptosis: an evaluation by the bioactivity guided approach,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. T. T. Liao, Y. L. Shi, J. W. Jia, R. W. Jia, and L. Wang, “Sensitivity of morphological change of Vero cells exposed to lipophilic compounds and its mechanism,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 179, no. 1–3, pp. 1055–1064, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. E. Ferrari, S. Lazzari, G. Marverti, F. Pignedoli, F. Spagnolo, and M. Saladini, “Synthesis, cytotoxic and combined cDDP activity of new stable curcumin derivatives,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 3043–3052, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. E. Carosati, G. Sforna, M. Pippi et al., “Ligand-based virtual screening and ADME-tox guided approach to identify triazolo-quinoxalines as folate cycle inhibitors,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 7773–7785, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. C. W. How, A. Rasedee, and R. Abbasalipourkabir, “Characterization and cytotoxicity of nanostructured lipid carriers formulated with olive oil, hydrogenated palm oil, and polysorbate 80,” IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 72–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. J. An, J. H. Cheon, S. W. Kim, E. S. Kim, T. I. Kim, and W. H. Kim, “Guggulsterone induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in murine colorectal cancer xenografts,” Cancer Letters, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. Y. H. Han and W. H. Park, “Growth inhibition in antimycin a treated-lung cancer Calu-6 cells via inducing a G1 phase arrest and apoptosis,” Lung Cancer, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 150–160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. G. Kroemer, B. Dallaporta, and M. Resche-Rigon, “The mitochondrial death/life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 60, pp. 619–642, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. Z.-B. Li, J.-Y. Wang, B. Jiang, X.-L. Zhang, L.-J. An, and Y.-M. Bao, “Benzobijuglone, a novel cytotoxic compound from Juglans mandshurica, induced apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells,” Phytomedicine, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 846–852, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. L. Ding, B. Liu, L.-L. Qi et al., “Anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by a natural xanthone from Gentianopsis paludosa Ma, in human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 408–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. D. O. Morgan, “Cyclin-dependent kinases: engines, clocks, and microprocessors,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 13, pp. 261–291, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Xiong, G. J. Hannon, H. Zhang, D. Casso, R. Kobayashi, and D. Beach, “p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases,” Nature, vol. 366, no. 6456, pp. 701–704, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. P. Jin, Y. Gu, and D. O. Morgan, “Role of inhibitory CDC2 phosphorylation in radiation-induced G2 arrest in human cells,” The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 963–970, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. M. O'Connor, D. K. Ferris, M. Pagano et al., “G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 268, no. 11, pp. 8298–8308, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Petru, B. U. Sevin, J. Haas, R. Ramos, and J. Perras, “A correlation of cell cycle perturbations with chemosensitivity in human ovarian cancer cells exposed to cytotoxic drugs in vitro,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 48–57, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. M. G. Pallavicini, M. E. Lalande, R. G. Miller, and R. P. Hill, “Cell cycle distribution of chronically hypoxic cells and determination of the clonogenic potential of cells accumulated in G2 + M phases after irradiation of a solid tumor in vivo,” Cancer Research, vol. 39, no. 6 I, pp. 1891–1897, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus