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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 282164, 8 pages
Research Article

Written Language Ability in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Linkou Branch, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan

Received 28 November 2014; Accepted 3 April 2015

Academic Editor: Prepageran Narayanan

Copyright © 2015 Che-Ming Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. To examine narrative writing in cochlear implant (CI) children and understand the factors associated with unfavorable outcomes. Materials and Methods. Forty-five CI children in grades 2–6 participated in this study. They received CIs at 4.1 ± 2.1 years of age and had used them for 6.5 ± 2.7 years. A story-writing test was conducted and scored on 4 subscales: Total Number of Words, Words per Sentence, Morphosyntax, and Semantics. Scores more than 1.5 SD lower than the mean of the normal-hearing normative sample were considered problematic. Language and speech skills were examined. Results. Significantly more implanted students were problematic on “Total Number of Words” (), “Words per Sentence” (), and “Semantics” (). Poorer receptive language and auditory performance were independently associated with problematic “Total Number of Words” () and “Semantics” (), respectively. “Semantics” problem was more common in lower graders (grades 2–4) than in higher graders (grades 5-6; ). Conclusion. Implanted children tend to write stories that are shorter, worse-organized, and without a plot, while formulating morphosyntactically correct sentences. Special attention is required on their auditory and language performances, which could lead to written language problems.