Table 4: Body dimensions, distribution of body fat storage, and metabolic markers profile according to genotypes and phenotype.
(a) Normal range BMI subjects

MeasurementsPolymorphism PPARGC1A Polymorphism PPARG2
GenotypesPhenotypeGenotypesPhenotype
Gly/GlyGly/SerSer/SerSer+Pro/ProPro/AlaAla/AlaAla+
7760167611734236

Height (cm)164.6 ± 8.3164.7 ± 9.3165.5 ± 10.5164.9 ± 9.5163.9 ± 9.0167.5 ± 7.8165.0 ± 11.3167.3 ± 7.8
Body weight (kg)61.0 ± 7.760.9 ± 9.562.9 ± 9.261.4 ± 9.460.7 ± 8.962.9 ± 6.859.5 ± 17.262.7 ± 7.2
BMI (kg/m2)22.49 ± 1.722.32 ± 1.622.77 ± 1.622.4 ± 1.622.48 ± 1.622.40 ± 1.621.55 ± 3.322.3 ± 1.7
Total body fat mass (kg)14.1 ± 5.215.0 ± 6.513.8 ± 5.814.7 ± 6.314.6 ± 5.813.9 ± 5.315.6 ± 11.714.0 ± 5.6
Body fat ratio5.23 ± 1.935.60 ± 2.484.88 ± 2.255.46 ± 2.435.46 ± 2.214.95 ± 2.085.48 ± 3.564.98 ± 2.11
Waist circumference (cm)78.1 ± 8.178.1 ± 8.480.1 ± 7.978.5 ± 8.277.7 ± 8.180.4 ± 7.970.4 ± 6.880.1 ± 8.0
Hip circumference (cm)95.5 ± 4.895.9 ± 7.895.3 ± 4.595.8 ± 7.195.8 ± 6.595.4 ± 4.587.7 ± 5.395.2 ± 4.6
WHR0.82 ± 0.080.80 ± 0.140.84 ± 0.070.81 ± 0.130.80 ± 0.110.84 ± 0.080.79 ± 0.020.84 ± 0.09
WthR0.47 ± 0.040.47 ± 0.050.48 ± 0.040.48 ± 0.050.48 ± 0.050.48 ± 0.050.45 ± 0.050.48 ± 0.05
Total adipose area (cm2)490 ± 104490 ± 111515 ± 97496 ± 108486 ± 105519 ± 104394 ± 92515 ± 105
Conicity index1.17 ± 0.091.18 ± 0.121.19 ± 0.081.19 ± 0.121.18 ± 0.111.20 ± 0.111.18 ± 0.011.20 ± 0.11
Abdominal volume index (L)12.5 ± 2.4912.6 ± 2.7113.1 ± 2.3312.7 ± 2.6212.5 ± 2.513.3 ± 2.510.1 ± 0.0213.1 ± 2.54
Glucose (mg/dL)*87 ± 9.389 ± 12.180 ± 13.487 ± 12.787 ± 11.885 ± 8.679 ± 4.2485 ± 8.5
Insulin (μIU/mL)11.3 ± 12.918.4 ± 35.510.9 ± 7.516.9 ± 31.814.9 ± 27.311.4 ± 9.410.2 ± 4.111.3 ± 9.2
HOMA-IR2.40 ± 2.893.95 ± 7.221.89 ± 1.113.54 ± 6.513.51 ± 5.672.40 ± 2.001.98 ± 0.702.20 ± 1.90
Triglycerides (mg/dL)117 ± 70113 ± 57114 ± 66113 ± 58115 ± 68118 ± 5374 ± 6115 ± 53
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)172 ± 32173 ± 43171 ± 39172 ± 42172 ± 36173 ± 42159 ± 60172 ± 42
HDLc (mg/dL)39 ± 17.641 ± 16.141 ± 17.341 ± 16.241 ± 17.038 ± 16.934 ± 5.716 ± 2.8
LDLc (mg/dL)106 ± 29.4105 ± 41.6105 ± 42.2105 ± 41.5104 ± 35.3107 ± 37.7110 ± 53.937 ± 6.3
VLDLc (mg/dL)23.5 ± 14.122.7 ± 11.422.9 ± 13.422.7 ± 11.823.1 ± 13.623.6 ± 10.714.9 ± 1.323.2 ± 10.6
Apolipoprotein A-1 (mg/dL)118 ± 24.4116 ± 35.9125 ± 20.3118 ± 24.4117 ± 30.9123 ± 21.7112 ± 11.7123 ± 21.7
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL)102 ± 30.197 ± 28.989 ± 20.9102 ± 30.199 ± 29.096 ± 27.498 ± 12.897 ± 10.3
Total sAdiponectin (ng/mL)8119 ± 43586540 ± 180810361 ± 43788119 ± 43587756 ± 30737130 ± 56735046 ± 23265001 ± 2236
sResistin (ng/mL)&8.1 ± 2.58.4 ± 2.39.7 ± 3.88.1 ± 2.57.9 ± 2.211.2 ± 1.5 10.7 ± 1.911.3 ± 1.5
sLeptin (ng/mL)18.5 ± 14.918.0 ± 15.114.6 ± 3.2 18.4 ± 14.916.2 ± 14.520.8 ± 17.433.2 ± 11.923.9 ± 15.5

= 153. Normal range BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2. Data are means ± SD. *Gly/Ser versus Ser/Ser genotypes, = 0.022.  &ALA− versus ALA+ phenotypes = 0.009.
BMI: body mass index; WHR: waist-hip ratio; WthR: waist height ratio; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; HDLc, LDLc, and VLDLc: high, low, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively.
(b) Preobese range BMI subjects

MeasurementsPolymorphism PPARGC1A Polymorphism PPARG2
GenotypesPhenotypeGenotypesPhenotype
Gly/GlyGly/SerSer/SerSer+Pro/ProPro/AlaAla/AlaAla+
7454167011727027

Height (cm)163.8 ± 8.8164.8 ± 9.77157.9 ± 6.6163.2 ± 9.6164.2 ± 8.9160.5 ± 9.8160.5 ± 9.8
Body weight (kg)74.0 ± 9.374.2 ± 9.768.5 ± 5.772.8 ± 9.374.0 ± 8.971.3 ± 10.671.3 ± 10.6
BMI (kg/m2)27.50 ± 1.5027.20 ± 1.3227.48 ± 1.4327.27 ± 1.3427.35 ± 1.4227.55 ± 1.4527.55 ± 1.45
Total body fat mass (kg)23.8 ± 5.122.4 ± 5.521.4 ± 4.322.1 ± 5.222.6 ± 5.423.8 ± 4.423.8 ± 4.4
Body fat ratio8.78 ± 2.048.28 ± 2.178.61 ± 1.788.37 ± 2.068.40 ± 2.169.14 ± 1.519.14 ± 1.51
Waist circumference (cm)92.3 ± 8.491.2 ± 8.290.1 ± 6.791.0 ± 7.891.6 ± 7.791.5 ± 9.891.5 ± 9.8
Hip circumference (cm)103.6 ± 5.1101.9 ± 5.5100.8 ± 3.8101.6 ± 5.1102.6 ± 5.3102.8 ± 4.5102.8 ± 4.5
WHR0.90 ± 0.140.90 ± 0.080.90 ± 0.070.89 ± 0.080.89 ± 0.120.89 ± 0.080.89 ± 0.08
WthR0.56 ± 0.040.55 ± 0.040.57 ± 0.030.56 ± 0.040.56 ± 0.040.58 ± 0.040.58 ± 0.04
Total adipose area (cm2)682 ± 125667 ± 18649 ± 95662 ± 112672 ± 112673 ± 149673 ± 149
Conicity index1.26 ± 0.081.25 ± 0.091.26 ± 0.071.25 ± 0.091.25 ± 0.081.27 ± 0.091.27 ± 0.09
Abdominal volume index (L)17.30 ± 3.0816.90 ± 2.8716.43 ± 2.2916.78 ± 2.7317.04 ± 2.7417.10 ± 3.717.07 ± 3.70
Glucose (mg/dL)97 ± 12.195 ± 11.792 ± 13.594 ± 12.195 ± 11.397 ± 15.497 ± 15.4
Insulin (μIU/mL)15.9 ± 9.918.9 ± 19.113.3 ± 5.917.6 ± 17.117.3 ± 14.914.5 ± 7.514.5 ± 7.5
HOMA-IR3.91 ± 2.544.43 ± 4.633.06 ± 1.484.11 ± 4.154.12 ± 3.673.52 ± 1.993.53 ± 1.99
Triglycerides (mg/dL)*186 ± 124153 ± 74133 ± 60148 ± 71173 ± 108145 ± 76145 ± 76
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)195 ± 43189 ± 40188 ± 31189 ± 38193 ± 44187 ± 25187 ± 25
HDLc (mg/dL) &37 ± 13.636 ± 13.032 ± 12.236 ± 12.736 ± 12.741 ± 14.141 ± 14.1
LDLc (mg/dL)111 ± 32.5115 ± 41.3115 ± 35.4115 ± 39.7114 ± 38.1107 ± 25.6107 ± 25.6
VLDLc (mg/dL)36.2 ± 24.830.5 ± 14.726.8 ± 12.129.6 ± 14.234.0 ± 21.629.1 ± 15.329.1 ± 15.3
Apolipoprotein A-1 (mg/dL)109 ± 15.6120 ± 31.5108 ± 6.7118 ± 29.1110 ± 15.8124 ± 37.5124 ± 37.5
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL)129 ± 40.5117 ± 23.0113 ± 9.0117 ± 21.4125 ± 35.4121 ± 30.9121 ± 30.9
Total sAdiponectin (ng/mL)3929 ± 31453563 ± 27153283 ± 31073485 ± 28013646 ± 27453721 ± 35163721 ± 3516
sResistin (ng/mL)8.9 ± 2.610.6 ± 3.810.5 ± 4.910.6 ± 3.89.3 ± 3.410.6 ± 2.810.6 ± 2.8
sLeptin (ng/mL)24.1 ± 14.320.2 ± 14.931.3 ± 16.723.6 ± 16.123.2 ± 16.026.0 ± 13.526.0 ± 13.5

. Preobese range, BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2. Data are means ± SD. *Ser− versus Ser+ phenotypes, = 0.030. &Ala− versus Ala+ phenotypes,    = 0.039.
(c) Obese range BMI subjects

MeasurementsPolymorphism PPARGC1A Polymorphism PPARG2
Genotypes PhenotypeGenotypes Phenotype
Gly/GlyGly/SerSer/SerSer+Pro/ProPro/AlaAla/AlaAla+
38319406113417

Height (cm)162.9 ± 9.3162.1 ± 9.8170.5 ± 1.3164.0 ± 10.6164.2 ± 9.9159.2 ± 8.8166.8 ± 13.4160.9 ± 10.1
Body weight (kg)*90.6 ± 11.887.4 ± 13.4108.9 ± 10.892.2 ± 15.691.9 ± 14.689.7 ± 10.989.7 ± 12.989.7 ± 11.0
BMI (kg/ )*34.08 ± 3.3433.18 ± 0.5537.80 ± 5.3034.21 ± 4.3834.02 ± 4.0335.41 ± 3.4732.18 ± 1.4934.64 ± 3.38
Total body fat mass (kg)*34.4 ± 7.834.3 ± 7.147.7 ± 9.237.9 ± 9.736.7 ± 8.835.4 ± 10.932.4 ± 4.534.5 ± 9.4
Body fat ratio*13.12 ± 3.2313.19 ± 2.7616.48 ± 0.4214.06 ± 3.5213.73 ± 3.3213.87 ± 4.0411.81 ± 2.3513.2 ± 3.7
Waist circumference (cm)106.4 ± 11.7103.2 ± 9.6110.9 ± 9.6104.9 ± 9.9105.7 ± 10.9102.2 ± 10.5113.1 ± 7.9105.3 ± 10.8
Hip circumference (cm)*115.8 ± 9.6115.6 ± 8.2127.6 ± 14.3118.1 ± 10.7117.5 ± 10.3116.7 ± 0.4110.0 ± 5.9114.8 ± 9.6
WHR°&0.94 ± 0.120.89 ± 0.080.77 ± 0.310.87 ± 0.160.89 ± 0.150.90 ± 0.111.03 ± 0.100.93 ± 0.12
WthR0.65 ± 0.070.63 ± 0.070.65 ± 0.080.63 ± 0.070.64 ± 0.070.65 ± 0.070.68 ± 0.040.65 ± 0.07
Total adipose area (cm2)911 ± 198855 ± 161984 ± 167882 ± 168898 ± 186838 ± 1671021 ± 138891 ± 176
Conicity index #1.31 ± 0.111.28 ± 0.091.26 ± 0.071.28 ± 0.081.29 ± 0.081.25 ± 0.141.42 ± 0.051.30 ± 0.15
Abdominal volume index (L)23.08 ± 4.9221.66 ± 3.9724.98 ± 4.2522.4 ± 4.222.8 ± 4.621.3 ± 4.125.7 ± 3.522.6 ± 4.4
Glucose (mg/dL) +98 ± 15.297 ± 11.492 ± 11.296 ± 11.496 ± 13.3104 ± 13.396 ± 9.0103 ± 13.8
Insulin (μIU/mL) +21.4 ± 22.027.2 ± 36.833.8 ± 33.328.7 ± 35.722.6 ± 20.440.8 ± 57.311.9 ± 7.039.5 ± 55.2
HOMA-IR +∆5.45 ± 5.796.59 ± 9.005.35 ± 3.216.34 ± 8.135.13 ± 4.2710.38 ± 13.92.92 ± 1.9610.05 ± 13.4
Triglycerides (mg/dL) &171 ± 103130 ± 40151 ± 42135 ± 41155 ± 85142 ± 52149 ± 58144 ± 52
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)194 ± 26194 ± 38178 ± 23191 ± 36191 ± 33193 ± 24219 ± 21199 ± 25
HDLc (mg/dL)36 ± 10.338 ± 16.943 ± 18.839 ± 17.236 ± 14.840 ± 10.948 ± 13.442 ± 11.6
LDLc (mg/dL)120 ± 27.4118 ± 25.199 ± 26.4114 ± 26.3114 ± 26.7121 ± 21.4150 ± 27.7128 ± 25.4
VLDLc (mg/dL)33.9 ± 20.726.2 ± 8.230.3 ± 8.427.2 ± 8.330.9 ± 17.228.5 ± 10.530.0 ± 11.828.8 ± 10.5
Apolipoprotein A1 (mg/dL)°&106 ± 16.9123 ± 28.7148 ± 37.9128 ± 31.5116 ± 29.3124 ± 12.4112 ± 17.9119 ± 15.0
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL)*121 ± 25.8115 ± 16.880 ± 46.8108 ± 28.3116 ± 20.987 ± 54.7134 ± 37.5107 ± 50.8
Total sAdiponectin (ng/mL) +4421 ± 34523897 ± 17695946 ± 59294553 ± 36464598 ± 37793596 ± 23644861 ± 16133210 ± 1466
sResistin (ng/mL)10.3 ± 4.19.3 ± 2.014.3 ± 2.310.8 ± 3.110.5 ± 3.38.0 ± 3.711.7 ± 6.710.8 ± 5.7
sLeptin (ng/mL)55.8 ± 31.154.8 ± 26.472.6 ± 41.158.9 ± 30.755.4 ± 30.969.5 ± 30.757.4 ± 26.766.1 ± 29.1

. Obese range, BMI >30.0 kg/m2. Data are means ± SD. *Gly/Gly versus Gly/Ser and Ser/Ser genotypes, °Gly/Gly versus Ser/Ser genotypes, &Ser− versus Ser+ phenotypes, #Pro/Pro versus Pro/Ala and Ala/Ala genotypes, Pro/Pro versus Pro/Ala genotypes, Pro/Pro versus Ala/Ala genotypes, +Ala− versus Ala+ phenotypes, < 0.05.