Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 286817, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/286817
Research Article

Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

1Department of Neurosciences, Reproduction and Odontostomatologic Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Pansini 5, 80100 Naples, Italy
2Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Pansini 5, 80100 Naples, Italy
3Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Pansini 5, 80100 Naples, Italy
4Department of Biology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Pansini 5, 80100 Naples, Italy

Received 17 September 2014; Revised 28 January 2015; Accepted 29 January 2015

Academic Editor: Paul M. Tulkens

Copyright © 2015 Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora.