BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

Table 2

Pre- and posttreatment absolute values (mean ± SE) of MF (Hz) with their percentage change (mean values) at various stimulation times across treatment groups.

TreatmentBefore treatment% change5 min% change20 min% change40 min% change

MF (KLD)
 Before stimulation12.17 ± 4.57b11.26 ± 7.65b15.64 ± 11.04ba11.53 ± 3.28b
 After stimulation20.1 ± 4.15a108.1811.03 ± 7.27b25.0719.02 ± 9.76a88.1216.13 ± 3.49ba63.38
MF (LLD)
 Before stimulation11.93 ± 2.55bc7.76 ± 1.05c11.81 ± 2.88bc7.97 ± 0.86c
 After stimulation24.11 ± 6.58a112.1713.19 ± 2.58b65.5221.74 ± 5.44a83.8721.06 ± 5.74a155.19
MF (MRP)
 Before stimulation9.09 ± 1.47c9.29 ± 2.53c9.14 ± 2.47c9.87 ± 2.53c
 After stimulation20.58 ± 1.57a172.6915.39 ± 4.34b104.4114.94 ± 1.93b69.7813.46 ± 1.24b72.05
MF (MLX)
 Before stimulation6.23 ± 0.56c8.05 ± 0.77bc9.42 ± 1.09b9.7 ± 1.46b
 After stimulation14.4 ± 3.64a124.4216.99 ± 2.76a121.316.79 ± 3.65a82.817.11 ± 2.8a75.25

Means within a row and column in each treatment group followed by different letters are significantly different at (). MF = median frequency. KLD = ketamine loading dose. LLD = lidocaine loading dose. MRP = morphine. MLX = meloxicam.