BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

Table 4

Pre- and posttreatment absolute values (mean ± SE) Ptot (µV2) with their percentage change (mean values) at various stimulation times across treatment groups.

TreatmentBefore treatment% change5 min% change20 min% change40 min% change

Ptot (KLD)
 Before stimulation8.17 ± 1.08c10.71 ± 0.84a10.41 ± 1.42a9.18 ± 1.22bc
 After stimulation6.44 ± 0.52d17.5410.02 ± 1.22ab12.428.07 ± 1.79c25.116.76 ± 0.9d26.96
Ptot (LLD)
 Before stimulation9.01 ± 0.94a8.17 ± 0.73ab8.52 ± 0.68ab7.8 ± 0.76cb
 After stimulation8.29 ± 0.85ab19.86.69 ± 0.85d19.048.1 ± 1.35ab37.047.1 ± 0.83dc23.6
Ptot (MRP)
 Before stimulation7.78 ± 0.65ab8.51 ± 1.11a7.86 ± 0.66ab7.77 ± 0.73ab
 After stimulation6.29 ± 0.63c7.068.49 ± 1.01a14.927.04 ± 0.89bc17.367.02 ± 0.59bc16.32
Ptot (MLX)
 Before stimulation9.04 ± 1.32a9.28 ± 1.1a8.57 ± 1.15ab8.19 ± 0.92ab
 After stimulation7.86 ± 1.52bc17.227.08 ± 0.76c23.046.88 ± 0.67c22.027.04 ± 0.87c14.27

Means within a row and column in each treatment group followed by different letters are significantly different at (). MF = median frequency. KLD = ketamine loading dose. LLD = lidocaine loading dose. MRP = morphine. MLX = meloxicam.