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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 308505, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/308505
Review Article

Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

1Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen 518040, China
2Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China

Received 22 May 2015; Accepted 1 July 2015

Academic Editor: Goji Tomita

Copyright © 2015 Ning Fan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP) does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.