In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Vancomycin-Loaded PMMA Cement in Combination with Ultrasound and Microbubbles-Mediated Ultrasound
Summary of the (a) in vitro results for VAN activity against planktonic S. aureus, (b) colony-forming growth in sheep blood agar plates, and (c) the morphology of planktonic S. aureus cells. In (a), asterisk () denotes significant difference. In (c), black arrow indicates increase in roughness and thickness of cell wall, white arrow indicates broken cell wall, and red arrow indicates shape-altered cell and cell debris. VAN: vancomycin; MBs: microbubbles; US: ultrasound; CFU: colony- forming units.