BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

Table 2

Bivariate analysis for the herd-level seropositivity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in commercial dairy and beef farms in northern and northeastern China.

Variables Number of the sampledMAPBLV
Number of positive cattle (%)Number of positive cattle (%)

Region
 Heilongjiang192 (10.53)0.6734 (21.05)0.930
 Jilin244 (16.67)4 (16.67)
 Liaoning216 (28.57)5 (23.81)
 Hebei276 (22.22)7 (25.93)
 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region225 (22.73)4 (18.18)
Herd size
 Small (50–100) 529 (17.31)0.0248 (15.38)0.002
 Medium (100–150)467 (15.22)6 (13.04)
 Large (>150)157 (46.67)8 (53.33)
Mixed farming
 Yes337 (21.21)0.8848 (24.24)0.616
 No8016 (20.00)16 (20.00)
Methods of cleaning
 Not practiced136 (46.15)0.0387 (53.85)0.007
 Sweeping398 (20.51)8 (20.51)
 Water hosing619 (14.75)9 (14.75)
Source of water
 Well4111 (26.83)0.19713 (31.70)0.040
 Tap water7212 (16.67)11 (15.28)
Management system
 Intensive354 (11.43)0.2273 (8.57)0.036
 Semi-intensive4610 (21.74)10 (21.74)
 Extensive329 (28.13)11 (34.38)
Presence of other animals
 No7615 (19.74)0.81516 (21.05)0.945
 Yes378 (21.62)8 (21.62)
Presence of cattle introduced from other farms
 No8114 (17.28)0.19713 (16.05)0.032
 Yes329 (28.13)11 (34.38)
Type of production
 Beef263 (11.54)0.2455 (19.23)0.161
 Milk7215 (20.83)13 (18.06)
 Mixed155 (33.33)6 (40.00)
Veterinary service
 No4311 (25.58)0.27914 (32.56)0.021
 Yes7012 (17.14)10 (14.29)