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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 319745, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/319745
Review Article

The Crosstalk between Hypoxia and Innate Immunity in the Development of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

1Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, 39008 Santander, Spain
2Infection, Immunity and Digestive Pathology Group, Research Institute Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), 39008 Santander, Spain
3Transplant and Autoimmunity Group, Research Institute Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), 39008 Santander, Spain
4Immunology Department, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, 39008 Santander, Spain

Received 24 April 2015; Revised 26 August 2015; Accepted 30 August 2015

Academic Editor: Luca Miele

Copyright © 2015 María Teresa Arias-Loste et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major health issue in western countries in parallel with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and all obesity related conditions, including respiratory diseases as obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Interestingly, the severity of the liver damage in obesity-related NAFLD has been associated with the concomitant presence of OSAHS. In the presence of obesity, the proinflammatory state in these patients together with intermittent episodes of hypoxia, characteristic of OSAHS pathogenesis, may lead to an enhanced inflammatory response mediated by a positive feedback loop mechanism that implicates HIF-1 and NFκB. Thus, the severity of liver involvement in obese NAFLD patients with a concomitant diagnosis of OSAHS could be explained. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatic response to chronic intermittent hypoxia and its interaction with innate immunity in obesity-related NAFLD.