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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 341327, 16 pages
Review Article

Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Novel Supportive Therapies for Oral Bone Regeneration

1Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2Department of Oral Surgery and Implant Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, 18009 Granada, Spain
3Research Group #CTS-583 (Implantology and Periodontics), University of Granada, Junta de Andalucía, Spain
4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18009 Granada, Spain
5Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, 18009 Granada, Spain
6Research Group #CTS-138 (Pathology), University of Granada, Junta de Andalucía, Spain
7Private Practice, 8320000 Santiago, Chile
8Implantology Program, University of San Sebastian, 8320000 Santiago, Chile
9Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, 18009 Granada, Spain

Received 16 January 2015; Revised 7 April 2015; Accepted 14 April 2015

Academic Editor: Giulio Gasparini

Copyright © 2015 Miguel Padial-Molina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bone regeneration is often needed prior to dental implant treatment due to the lack of adequate quantity and quality of the bone after infectious diseases, trauma, tumor, or congenital conditions. In these situations, cell transplantation technologies may help to overcome the limitations of autografts, xenografts, allografts, and alloplastic materials. A database search was conducted to include human clinical trials (randomized or controlled) and case reports/series describing the clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the oral cavity for bone regeneration only specifically excluding periodontal regeneration. Additionally, novel advances in related technologies are also described. 190 records were identified. 51 articles were selected for full-text assessment, and only 28 met the inclusion criteria: 9 case series, 10 case reports, and 9 randomized controlled clinical trials. Collectively, they evaluate the use of MSCs in a total of 290 patients in 342 interventions. The current published literature is very diverse in methodology and measurement of outcomes. Moreover, the clinical significance is limited. Therefore, the use of these techniques should be further studied in more challenging clinical scenarios with well-designed and standardized RCTs, potentially in combination with new scaffolding techniques and bioactive molecules to improve the final outcomes.