Table 1: Synthesis of results.

Author
year
PEDro
Group/sampleAge range yearsTime since stroke onsetType of VRType of feedbackSessionsOutcome
measures

Jaffe et al.
(2004) [12]
PEDro: 4/10
ROT: 10
OVR: 10
60 meanChronic
3-4 years
Immersive:
VR scripting language
Visual, vibrotactile, auditory6 ses.
1 h/d, 3 d/w, 2 w
Stride gait analysis system, obstacle test, 6MWT

You et al.
(2005) [13]
PEDro: 5/10
VR: 5
C: 5
54 meanChronic
1-2 years
Semi-immersive:
IREX VR system
KR/KP20 ses. 1 h/d, 5 d/w, 4 wFAC, MMAS, fMRI

Mirelman et al.
(2009) [14]
PEDro: 5/10
R + VR: 9
R: 9
61 meanChronic
3-4 years
Semi-immersive:
Rutgers Ankle
KR/KP12 ses.
1 h/d, 3 d/w, 4 w
Gait speed, 6MWT, PAM (gait spatiotemporal parameters)

Yang et al.
(2008) [3]
PEDro: 6/10
TT: 9
VRTT: 11
58 meanChronic
6 years
Immersive:
visual screen, 3D
Fastrak Polhemus
Auditory, visual9 ses.
20 m/d, 3 d/w, 3 w
Walking speed, WAQ,
ABC scale

Kim et al.
(2009) [15]
PEDro: 6/10
CP + VR: 12
CP: 12
51 meanChronic
2-3 years
Semi-immersive:
IREX VR system
KR/KP16 ses.
CP:
40 m/d, 4 d/w, 4 w
VR: 30 m
BPM, BBS, 10MWT, MMAS, GAITRite

Mirelman et al.
(2010) [16]
PEDro: 3/10
R + VR: 9
R: 9
61 meanChronic
3-4 years
Semi-immersive:
Rutgers Ankle
KR/KP12 ses.
1 h/d, 3 d/w, 4 w
Gait analysis (kinematic and kinetic parameters)

Gil-Gómez et al.
(2011) [17]
PEDro: 6/10
WBB: 9
CR: 8
47 meanChronic
1-2 years
Nonimmersive: WBB easy balance virtual rehabilitationAuditory, visual20 ses.
1 h/d (3–5 d/w)
BBS, BBA, ART, TST, ST, 1MWT, 10MWT, TUG, 30SST

Fritz et al.
(2013) [18]
PEDro: 6/10
Game: 15
C: 13
66 meanChronic
3-4 years
Nonimmersive and semi-immersive:
WBB and play station
Auditory, visual20 ses.
1 h/d, 4 d/w
FMS, BBS, TUG, 6MWT, Dynamic Gait Index, 3MWT, Stroke Impact Scale

Cho and Lee  
(2013) [19]
PEDro: 7/10
CP + TRWVR: 15
CP + TT: 15
64 meanChronic
1-2 years
Semi-immersive:
treadmill + screenshot of real-world video recording
Auditory, visual18 ses.
30 m/d, 3 d/w, 6 w
BBS, TUG, gait performance (GAITRite)

Park et al.
(2013) [20]
PEDro: 4/10
VR + CP: 8
CP: 8
47 meanChronic
11 years
Immersive
VR-based postural control program (head-mounted display)
Visual12 ses.
30 min/d, 3 d/w, 4 w
10MWT, GAITRite (gait parameters)

Cho and Lee  
(2014) [21]
PEDro: 7/10
CP + TRWVR: 15
CP + TT: 15
64 meanChronic
1-2 years
Semi-immersive:
treadmill + screenshot of real-world video recording
Auditory, visual18 ses.
30 m/d, 3 d/w, 6 w
BBS, TUG, Postural Sway Platform System, GAITRite

3MWT: 3-Minute Walking Test; 6MWT: 6-Minute Walking Test; 10MWT: 10-Meter Walking Test; 30SST: 30-Second Sit to Stand Test; ABC scale: activities-specific balance confidence; ART: Anterior Reach Test; BBA: Brunel Balance Assessment; BBS: Berg Balance Scale; BPM: Balance Performance Monitor; C: control (no intervention); CP: conventional physiotherapy; FAC: Functional Ambulatory Scale; FMS: Fugl-Meyer Scale; KP: knowledge of performance; KR: knowledge of results; MMAS: Modified Motor Assessment Scale; OVR: virtual obstacle training; PAM: Patient Activity Monitor, Ossur (walking activity); R: robot; ROT: real obstacles training; ST: Steeping Test; TRWVR: treadmill training based real-world video recording; TST: Timed Stair Test; TT: treadmill training; TUG: Timed Up Go; VRTT: virtual reality-based treadmill training; WAQ: Walking Ability Questionnaire; WBB: Wii Balance.