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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 354143, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/354143
Review Article

Natural Compounds Regulate Glycolysis in Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment

Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, No. 548 Binwen Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053, China

Received 22 August 2014; Accepted 1 October 2014

Academic Editor: Ying-Bo Li

Copyright © 2015 Jian-Li Gao and Ying-Ge Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the early twentieth century, Otto Heinrich Warburg described an elevated rate of glycolysis occurring in cancer cells, even in the presence of atmospheric oxygen (the Warburg effect). Recently it became a therapeutically interesting strategy and is considered as an emerging hallmark of cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is one of the key transcription factors that play major roles in tumor glycolysis and could directly trigger Warburg effect. Thus, how to inhibit HIF-1-depended Warburg effect to assist the cancer therapy is becoming a hot issue in cancer research. In fact, HIF-1 upregulates the glucose transporters (GLUT) and induces the expression of glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. So small molecules of natural origin used as GLUT, hexokinase, or pyruvate kinase isoform M2 inhibitors could represent a major challenge in the field of cancer treatment. These compounds aim to suppress tumor hypoxia induced glycolysis process to suppress the cell energy metabolism or enhance the susceptibility of tumor cells to radio- and chemotherapy. In this review, we highlight the role of natural compounds in regulating tumor glycolysis, with a main focus on the glycolysis under hypoxic tumor microenvironment.