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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 382585, 5 pages
Review Article

Malnutrition and Gut Flora Dysbiosis: Specific Therapies for Emerging Comorbidities in Heart Failure

1“S. Maugeri Foundation” IRCCS, Medical Centre, Lumezzane, 25065 Brescia, Italy
2Department of Biology and Biotechnology “L. Spallanzani”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3Division of Human Anatomy and Physiopathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 25124 Brescia, Italy
4Department of Internal Medicine, University of Milan, 20100 Milan, Italy

Received 15 May 2015; Accepted 10 September 2015

Academic Editor: Tamer Mohamed

Copyright © 2015 Evasio Pasini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic heart failure is a complicated multifactorial disease with wide-spread social-economic consequences. In spite of the recent development of new drugs and therapeutic strategies, CHF-related mortality and morbidity remain high. Recent evidence suggests that changes in organs such as skeletal muscle and gut flora may play an important and independent role in CHF prognosis. This paper illustrates these phenomena, proposing how to identify them and presenting current therapies which treat organs all too often underestimated but which have a fundamental role in worsening CHF.