Table 7: Representative examples illustrating digital PCR strategies targeting GMO.

MultiplexingTechniquesMethodsTargetsReferences

SimplexcdPCRTaxon-specificHMG, LEC, GLU, and CRU

     [69]
Element-specificp35S, tNOS, Cry1Ab, Cry1F, bar, CP4-EPSPS, Cry3Bb, nptII, Cry1A.105, and Cry2Bb
Event-specificMON531, MON88913, MON1445, MON15985, LLCOTTON25, GHB614, 3272, DAS-59122-7, Bt176, Bt11, GA21, MIR162, MIR604, MON810, MON863, MON88017, MON89034, NK603, T25, TC1507, Ms1, Topas19/2, OXY_235, Ms8, Rf3, GT73, T45, GTS40-3-2, A2704-12, MON89788, MON87701, DP-356043-5, A5547-127, BPS-CV-127, DP-305423-1, and TT51-1

Simplex cdPCRTaxon-specificADH, CRU, PLD, LEC, and adhC [70]
Element-specificp35S, pFMV, tNOS, Cry1Ab, bar, pat, and nptII
Event-specific3272, Bt11, GA21, MON89034, MON810, MIR604, MON88017, TC1507, Bt176, GTS40-3-1, DP-305423-1, DP-356043-5, H7-1, and GT73

SimplexddPCRTaxon-specificHMG [71]
Event-specificMON810

DuplexcdPCRTaxon-specificHMG [7274]
Event-specificMON810

Duplex ddPCRTaxon-specificLEC [48, 75]
Event-specificDP-356043-5, DP-305423-1, MON89788, GTS40-3-2, A5547-127, BPS-CV-127, A2704-12, MON87701, MON87708, MON87705, FG72, and MON87769

DuplexddPCRTaxon-specificPLD [75]
Event-specificLLRICE62 and KMD1

Duplex ddPCRTaxon-specificHMG [75]
Event-specificBt176, Bt11, MON810, NK603, Starllink, MON863, GA21, DAS-59122-7, MIR162, MIR604, 3272, T25, TC1507, MON88017, MON89034, and DAS-40278-9

DuplexddPCRTaxon-specificHMG [71]
Event-specificMON810

ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase I gene from maize); adhC (alcohol dehydrogenase C gene from cotton); bar (phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferases gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus); CP4-EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain); CRU (cruciferin gene from colza); Cry (gene encoding the Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin); GLU (glutamine synthetase gene from sugar beet); HMG (major high-mobility group protein gene from maize); LEC (lectin gene from soybean); nptII (neomycin phosphotransferase II gene); p35S (promoter of the 35 S cauliflower mosaic virus); pat (phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferases gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes); pFMV (promoter of the figwort mosaic virus); phy (phytase gene from maize); PLD (phospholipase D gene from rice); pNOS (promoter of the nopaline synthase gene); tNOS (terminator of the nopaline synthase gene).