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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 408180, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/408180
Research Article

Enhanced Oxidative Stress and Other Potential Biomarkers for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetics: Beneficial Effects of the Nutraceutic Supplements

1Ophthalmic Research Unit “Santiago Grisolía”, Fundación Investigación Biomédica y Sanitaria (FISABIO), 90 Gaspar Aguilar Avenida, 46017 Valencia, Spain
2Ophthalmology Research Unit, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 15 Blasco Ibañez Avenida, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital “Arnau de Vilanova”, 12 San Clemente Street, 46015 Valencia, Spain
4Ophthalmology Department, University and Polytechnic Hospital “La Fe”, 106 Fernando Abril Martorell Avenida, 46026 Valencia, Spain
5Spanish Net of Ophthalmic Pathology OFTARED, Institute of Health Carlos III, 4 Sinesio Delgado Street, 28029 Madrid, Spain
6Ophthalmology Clinic and Research Department, Clinica Oftalmológica Rahhal, 52 Cirilo Amorós Street, 46004 Valencia, Spain
7Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Vinaroz, 1 Gil de Atrocillo Avenida, Vinaroz, 12500 Castellón, Spain
8Ophthalmology Department, University Clinic Hospital, 1 Ramón y Cajal Street, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
9Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University Cardenal Herrera, 1 Seminario Avenida, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain
10Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital Reina Sofía, 1 Intendente Jorge Palacios Avenida, 30003 Murcia, Spain
11Ophthalmic Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
12Retina Division, The Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Received 14 June 2015; Revised 28 August 2015; Accepted 31 August 2015

Academic Editor: Kota V. Ramana

Copyright © 2015 María J. Roig-Revert et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We have studied the global risk of retinopathy in a Mediterranean population of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, according to clinical, biochemical, and lifestyle biomarkers. The effects of the oral supplementation containing antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) were also evaluated. Suitable participants were distributed into two main groups: (1) T2DMG (with retinopathy (+DR) or without retinopathy (−DR)) and (2) controls (CG). Participants were randomly assigned (+A/ω3) or not (−A/ω3) to the oral supplementation with a daily pill of Nutrof Omega (R) for 18 months. Data collected including demographics, anthropometrics, characteristics/lifestyle, ophthalmic examination (best corrected visual acuity, ocular fundus photographs, and retinal thickness as assessed by optical coherence tomography), and blood parameters (glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity) were registered, integrated, and statistically processed by the SPSS 15.0 program. Finally, 208 participants (130 diabetics (68 +DR/62 −DR) and 78 controls) completed the follow-up. Blood analyses confirmed that the T2DMG+DR patients had significantly higher oxidative stress , inflammatory , and vascular risk markers than the T2DMG−DR and the CG. Furthermore, the A/ω3 oral supplementation positively changed the baseline parameters, presumptively by inducing metabolic activation and ameliorating the ocular health after 18 months of supplementation.