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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 412716, 8 pages
Research Article

Development of an Ex Vivo, Beating Heart Model for CT Myocardial Perfusion

1University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands
2Department of Radiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University Medical Center, Postbus 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, Netherlands
3Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany
4University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede, Netherlands
5LifeTec Group BV, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands
6University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands

Received 11 September 2014; Accepted 23 December 2014

Academic Editor: Marco Francone

Copyright © 2015 Gert Jan Pelgrim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To test the feasibility of a CT-compatible, ex vivo, perfused porcine heart model for myocardial perfusion CT imaging. Methods. One porcine heart was perfused according to Langendorff. Dynamic perfusion scanning was performed with a second-generation dual source CT scanner. Circulatory parameters like blood flow, aortic pressure, and heart rate were monitored throughout the experiment. Stenosis was induced in the circumflex artery, controlled by a fractional flow reserve (FFR) pressure wire. CT-derived myocardial perfusion parameters were analysed at FFR of 1 to 0.10/0.0. Results. CT images did not show major artefacts due to interference of the model setup. The pacemaker-induced heart rhythm was generally stable at 70 beats per minute. During most of the experiment, blood flow was 0.9–1.0 L/min, and arterial pressure varied between 80 and 95 mm/Hg. Blood flow decreased and arterial pressure increased by approximately 10% after inducing a stenosis with FFR ≤ 0.50. Dynamic perfusion scanning was possible across the range of stenosis grades. Perfusion parameters of circumflex-perfused myocardial segments were affected at increasing stenosis grades. Conclusion. An adapted Langendorff porcine heart model is feasible in a CT environment. This model provides control over physiological parameters and may allow in-depth validation of quantitative CT perfusion techniques.