BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Lumbar Endoscopic Microdiscectomy: Where Are We Now? An Updated Literature Review Focused on Clinical Outcome, Complications, and Rate of Recurrence

Figure 2

(a-b) Preoperative T2-weighted sagittal and axial MRI showing an L5-S1 disc herniation impinging the left S1 nerve root. (c-d) Intraoperative fluoroscopy showing different phases of the transforaminal approach. AP view: pointer showing the L5-S1 interlaminar window and lateral view showing the radiofrequency bipolar endoscopic probe inside the L5-S1 intervertebral disc. (e) Removal of the herniated disc material has been completed. At the end of the procedure, the dural sac (ds), the S1 nerve root (s1) with its axilla (a), and shoulder (s) can be clearly visualized. Taken from the senior author’s personal series.
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