Table 1: Baseline characteristic and physiologic measures.

VariableGroup
MetS0
= 31
MetS1
= 35
MetS2
= 30

Baseline characteristics
 Female20 (65%)24 (69%)20 (67%)
 Age (years)36.6 ± 6.536.7 ± 5.639.5 ± 6.2
 BMI (kg/m2)21.6 ± 2.226.4 ± 4.2b29.0 ± 3.5d,e
 Waist circumference (cm)74.1 ± 6.785.5 ± 9.2b96.5 ± 8.4d,f
 Waist/hip ratio0.81 ± 0.070.85 ± 0.09a0.90 ± 0.06d,e
 ABSI (m11/6/kg2/3)0.073 ± 0.0050.074 ± 0.0050.077 ± 0.004d,f
 Systolic blood pres. (mmHg)119 ± 14122 ± 13134 ± 20
 Diastolic blood pres. (mmHg)67 ± 673 ± 1280 ± 12c
 Pulse (rate/min)58 ± 2555 ± 2966 ± 9c,e
 Smoking (%)
  Yes191710
  No818390
Dietary intake
 Total energy (kcal/day)1950 ± 5002050 ± 6502100 ± 700
 Total carbohydrate (g/day)240 ± 70250 ± 100250 ± 100
 Total fiber (g/day)23 ± 1121 ± 723 ± 10
 Total protein (g/day)75 ± 2585 ± 3090 ± 40c
 Total fat (g/day)75 ± 2580 ± 3080 ± 30
 Total saturated fat (g/day)23 ± 1025 ± 1028 ± 12
 Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)11 ± 511 ± 511 ± 6
Physical status
 Fitness index110 ± 1590 ± 15a80 ± 15c
Body composition
 Body fat (%)21.9 ± 6.629.9 ± 10.1a35.6 ± 9.5d,e
Resting metabolic rate
 RMR (kcal/day)1470 ± 3001440 ± 3001450 ± 400
Insulin resistance
 HOMA-IR1.2 ± 0.51.4 ± 0.52.5 ± 1.2d,f

ABSI: a body shape index; BMI: body mass index; HOMA-IR: insulin resistance score; RMR: resting metabolic rate.
Values are presented as means ± SD.
a,bGroup MetS1 is significantly different from group MetS0 at < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively.
c,dGroup MetS2 is significantly different from group MetS0 at < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively.
e,fGroup MetS2 is significantly different from group MetS1 at < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively.