Table 2: The effects of hypergravity conditions on different endothelial cell types.

Experimental modelExperimental conditionsEffectsAuthors

Primary human umbilical vein ECs (HUVEC)Hypergravity conditions (generated by a MidiCAR centrifuge at 3.5 xg) for 24–48 h↑ migration
↑ NO
Altered distribution of actin fibers
Versari et al., 2007
[12]
Hypergravity conditions (generated by a centrifuge at 3 xg) for 24–48 h↑ cav-1
↑ distribution of caveolae in the cell interior
↑ COX-2, NO, and PGI2 production
↓ angiogenesis (through a pathway not involving apoptosis)
Spisni et al., 2003
[65]
Liftoff simulation by centrifuge (7.5 min simulation of the pattern of g forces experienced during liftoff of the NASA space shuttle)↓ MAPK phosphorylation
↑ occludin expression
Sumanasekera et al., 2006
[66]
Liftoff simulation by centrifuge (7.5 min simulation of the pattern of g forces experienced during liftoff of the NASA space shuttle)↑ Paracellular permeability
↓ Occludin
↓ Transendothelial electrical resistance
↓ MAPK activation
↓ EC barrier function
Sumanasekera et al., 2007
[67]

Bovine aortic ECs (BAEC)Hypergravity (thermostated 3-18K Sigma Zentrifugen, 5 periods of 10 min exposure to 10 xg spaced with 10 min at 1 xg)Modified integrin distribution
Reorganization of cytoskeletal network
↓ genes controlling vasoconstriction and inflammation
↓ Proapoptotic signals
Morbidelli et al., 2009
[68]
Hypergravity (3 xg) applied by low speed centrifuge↑ ATP release
↑ actin reorganization via RhoA
activation and FAK phosphorylation
↑ cell proliferation and migration
Koyama et al., 2009
[69]

Bovine coronary venular ECs (CVEC)Hypergravity (thermostated 3-18K Sigma Zentrifugen, 5 periods of 10 min exposure to 10 xg spaced with 10 min at 1 xg)↓ proapoptotic genes (FADD, Fas, Fas-L)
↑ antiapoptotic gene NFBChange in cytoskeleton organization
Alteration of cell energy metabolism
Monici et al., 2006
[27]

Human EC line EA.hy926Hypergravity
Experiments (MuSIC, DLR, Cologne, Germany centrifuge 1.8 xg)
Vibration experiments (Vibraplex vibration platform frequency range 0.2–14 kHz)
↓ CARD8, NOS3, VASH1, SERPINH1 (all P1), CAV2, ADAM19, TNFRSF12A, CD40, and ITGA6 (P31) mRNAs
No significant changes on gene expression and morphology of the cells
Grosse et al., 2012
[41]
Hypergravity
Experiments (MuSIC, DLR, Cologne, Germany centrifuge 1.8 xg)
Vibration experiments (Vibraplex vibration platform frequency range 0.2–14 kHz)
↓ Pan-actin, tubulin, and Moesin
↓ gene expression of CCND1, MSN, RDX, OPN, BIRC5, and ACTB
↑ Pan-actin, tubulin, and ezrin
β-Actin and Moesin
↓ ACTB, CCND1, CDC6, CDKN1A, VEGFA, FLK-1, EZR, ITBG1, OPN, CASP3, CASP8, ANXA2, and BIRC5
Wehland et al., 2013
[42]

Legend: ↑, increased; ↓, decreased.