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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 436595, 11 pages
Research Article

Identification of Mastication Organ Muscle Forces in the Biocybernetic Perspective

1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Rybacka 1, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
2Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
3Department of Dental Propedeutics and Phsysiodiagnostics, Pomeranian Medical University, Rybacka 1, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
4Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 26 Krakowska Street, 50425 Wroclaw, Poland

Received 12 August 2014; Accepted 2 October 2014

Academic Editor: Anna Paradowska-Stolarz

Copyright © 2015 Edward Kijak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose of the Paper. This paper is an attempt to mathematically describe the mastication organ muscle functioning, taking into consideration the impact of the central nervous system. Material. To conduct model tests, three types of craniums were prepared: short, normal, and long. The necessary numeric data, required to prepare the final calculation models of different craniofacial types, were used to identify muscle and occlusion forces generated by muscles in the area of incisors and molars. The mandible in model tests was treated as a nondeformable stiff form. Methods. The formal basis for the formulated research problem was reached using the laws and principles of mechanics and control theory. The proposed method treats muscles as “black boxes,” whose properties automatically adapt to the nature of the occlusion load. The identified values of occlusion forces referred to measurements made in clinical conditions. Results. The conducted verification demonstrated a very good consistency of model and clinical tests’ results. The proposed method is an alternative approach to the so far applied methods of muscle force identification. Identification of muscle forces without taking into account the impact of the nervous system does not fully reflect the conditions of mastication organ muscle functioning.