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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 465479, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/465479
Research Article

miRNA Profiles of Tubular Cells: Diagnosis of Kidney Injury

Department of Genomic Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka 565-8565, Japan

Received 7 January 2015; Revised 5 March 2015; Accepted 5 March 2015

Academic Editor: Yudong Cai

Copyright © 2015 Naoko Kito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of 18–23 nucleotides that regulate gene expression. Recently, plasma miRNAs have been investigated as biomarkers for various physiological and pathological conditions. The present study details the conserved miRNA expression profiles of tubular tissues, and discusses whether they could be used to distinguish between proximal tubule injury, diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), and the early-stage renal tubular dysfunction. miRNA expression was assessed with miRNA array and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan system. The expression profiles of miR-200a/b/c, miR-145, miR-192, miR-194, miR-216a/b, miR-217, and miR-449a in human and rat tubular tissues such as the kidneys, lung, small intestine, and various exocrine glands were adequate for discriminating tubular tissues. In the kidney, miR-192 and miR-194 were highly expressed, whereas miR-145 and miR-449a were absent. miR-145 and miR-449a were relatively specifically expressed in small intestine and lung, respectively. Therefore, the combined levels of miR-200a/b/c, miR-192, and miR-194 in plasma were very useful in diagnosing AKI induced by contact freezing in mice. Moreover, urinary miR-200a levels were useful for the diagnosis of renal tubular dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rat with high salt administration. Our results indicate that miRNA expression profiles are useful as biomarkers for identification of various kidney injuries.