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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 473050, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/473050
Review Article

Lipopeptides as the Antifungal and Antibacterial Agents: Applications in Food Safety and Therapeutics

Department of Biotechnology, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla 171 005, India

Received 25 February 2014; Revised 26 September 2014; Accepted 2 October 2014

Academic Editor: Denise Freire

Copyright © 2015 Khem Raj Meena and Shamsher S. Kanwar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A lot of crops are destroyed by the phytopathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast leading to economic losses to the farmers. Members of the Bacillus genus are considered as the factories for the production of biologically active molecules that are potential inhibitors of growth of phytopathogens. Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and thus cause extended environmental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens have developed resistance to antimicrobial agents. The lipopeptides have been tried as potent versatile weapons to deal with a variety of phytopathogens. All the three families of Bacillus lipopeptides, namely, Surfactins, Iturins and Fengycins, have been explored for their antagonistic activities towards a wide range of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Iturin and Fengycin have antifungal activities, while Surfactin has broad range of potent antibacterial activities and this has also been used as larvicidal agent. Interestingly, lipopeptides being the molecules of biological origin are environmentally acceptable.