Figure 1: Comparison of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by flow cytometry following exposure to kainic acid (KA) over different time periods. (a–e) Representative fluorescence histograms obtained from dissociated cortical neurons (106 cells/mL) from 14-day-old rat brains incubated with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate in the presence of 0.005 pM, 0.5 pM, 50 nM, 5 μM, and 500 μM KA for 5 (red), 30 (yellow), 60 (blue), and 180 min (purple). The white curve represents the background fluorescence of untreated neurons; the colored curves represent the increased fluorescent intensity of neurons following KA treatment (a shift to the right versus white curve). (f) Bar graphs of ROS levels (mean ± SE) expressed as percentage change in mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) from controls. Experiments were performed in triplicate, and statistical analyses of the data were performed using ANOVA. Data are expressed as percentage change from controls. compared with the respective time period in the control group. compared with the respective time period in the 0.5 pM KA group. Apoptosis and necrosis labels indicate the degrees of cell death at 180 min of treatment.