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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 483548, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/483548
Research Article

Safety Evaluation of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Microbiota of Salami: Superantigenic Toxin Production and Antimicrobial Resistance

Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Sala 545, Cidade Universitária, 21949-909 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 26 May 2015; Accepted 20 October 2015

Academic Editor: Rosaria Scudiero

Copyright © 2015 Raquel Soares Casaes Nunes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The risks of contracting staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured salami and the possibility of this food being reservoirs for antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Nineteen coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains were found in commercial and artisanal salami. The species in commercial salami were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, and S. carnosus. Artisanal salami showed S. succinus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis but no S. carnosus. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the strains into three major staphylococcal species groups, comprised of 4 refined clusters with similarities superior to 90%. Fifteen strains harbored multiple enterotoxin genes, with high incidence of seb/sec and sea, 57% and 50%, respectively, intermediate incidence of sed/seh/selm and sei/seln/tst-H, 33% and 27%, correspondingly, and low incidence of see/selj/selo and seg, of respectively 13% and 1%. Real time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays confirmed the enterotoxigenicity of the strains, which expressed and produced enterotoxins in vitro. The CNS strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobials of therapeutic importance in both human and veterinarian medicine, such as β-lactams, vancomycin, and linezolid. The effective control of undue staphylococci in fermented meat products should be adopted to prevent or limit the risk of food poisoning and the spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains.