Table 7: Natural products perturbing IGF signalling pathways.

Active phytochemicalsNatural sourceMode of actionMolecular target

Curcumin [225, 226]Curcuma longa (turmeric powder) Antiproliferation, anticarcinogenesis, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesisIGF-1R

Genistein [226]Soybeans and soy products, red clover (Trifolium pratense), and sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera)Antioxidant, antiproliferation, antiproliferation, anticarcinogenesis, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, and anti-inflammationIGF-1R

Lycopene [226]Tomatoes, guava, rosehip, watermelon, papaya, apricot, and pink grapefruit; most abundant in red tomatoesAntioxidant, antiproliferation (growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis), antiangiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatorIGFBP-3

Apigenin [227]Fruits and vegetables, including oranges, grapefruits, parsley, celery, onions, wheat sprouts, cereals of millet and wheat, and in some seasonings, such as coriander, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, tarragon, and chamomile teaInhibit cellular proliferation, suppress tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, and induce apoptosisIGF axis and its intracellular signalling in prostate cancer

Quercetin [228]Fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grainsInhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of cancer cellsIGFIR

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate [229]Green teaInhibits angiogenesisInhibitory effects on IGF-I-induced VEGF expression

Resveratrol [225]Grapes (mainly in the skin), mulberries, peanuts, vines, and pinesAntioxidant, antiproliferation, anticarcinogenesis, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, and anti-inflammationSuppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signalling pathways