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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 538786, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/538786
Research Article

Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

1Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstraß 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2Department of Machine Design, Engineering Design and Product Development, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
3Flow Cytometry Facility, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstraß 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
4German Aerospace Center, Space Agency, Königswinterer Straße 522-524, 53227 Bonn, Germany
5Integrated Functional Genomics (IFG), University of Muenster, Roentgenstraß 21, 48149 Muenster, Germany
6KEK GmbH, Kemberger Straße 5, 06905 Bad Schmiedeberg, Germany
7University of Applied Science Jena, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 2, 07745 Jena, Germany
8Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Winterthurerstraß 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
9Study Group “Magdeburger Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung unter Raumfahrt- und Schwerelosigkeitsbedingungen” (MARS), Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany

Received 14 May 2014; Revised 22 September 2014; Accepted 9 October 2014

Academic Editor: Jack J. W. A. Van Loon

Copyright © 2015 Katrin Paulsen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.