Review Article

A Window into the Brain: Advances in Psychiatric fMRI

Figure 2

A summary of task-related fMRI analysis methods. (a) An example of the general linear model containing the BOLD signal time-series within a particular voxel, the design matrix including three regressors of interest, the regressor parameters , and the unexplained residuals . (b) Psychophysiological interaction can identify how the connectivity between two particular brain regions is modulated by an experimental variable or how a specified region modulates the relationship between an experimental variable and another brain region. (c) Structural equation model includes the stimulus to have an influence on all variables without input within the model. (d) An illustration of the dynamic causal model. (e) An illustration of the Granger causality model. Time-series A can be said to cause time-series B because the pattern of B is similar to A and A has temporal precedence. (f) An example of multivoxel pattern analysis. A specific classifier is chosen to identify the pattern of a certain mental state, whereafter the accuracy of the classifier will be tested using a new dataset.
(a) General linear model
(b) Psychophysiological interaction
(c) Structural equation model
(d) Dynamic causal model
(e) Granger causality model
(f) Multivoxel pattern analysis