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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 582938, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/582938
Research Article

Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Soil Treated with the Insecticide Imidacloprid

1Department and Institute of Microbiology and Virology, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
2Department of Microbiology, University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland

Received 18 August 2014; Revised 1 December 2014; Accepted 1 December 2014

Academic Editor: Qaisar Mahmood

Copyright © 2015 Mariusz Cycoń and Zofia Piotrowska-Seget. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effect of imidacloprid on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in soil using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach. Analysis showed that AOA and AOB community members were affected by the insecticide treatment. However, the calculation of the richness (S) and the Shannon-Wiener index (H) values for soil treated with the field rate (FR) dosage of imidacloprid (1 mg/kg soil) showed no changes in measured indices for the AOA and AOB community members. In turn, the dosage of insecticide (10 mg/kg soil) negatively affected the AOA community, which was confirmed by the decrease of the S and H values in comparison with the values obtained for the control soil. In the case of AOB community, an initial decline followed by the increase of the S and H values was obtained. Imidacloprid decreased the nitrification rate while the ammonification process was stimulated by the addition of imidacloprid. Changes in the community structure of AOA and AOB could be due to an increase in the concentration of N-, known as the most important factor which determines the contribution of these microorganisms to soil nitrification.