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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 594284, 9 pages
Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Response to Low-Modulus PMMA-Based Bone Cement

1Division of Orthopedics, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Entrance 61, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
2Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden

Received 26 May 2015; Accepted 10 August 2015

Academic Editor: Nicholas Dunne

Copyright © 2015 Elin Carlsson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The high stiffness of acrylic bone cements has been hypothesized to contribute to the increased number of fractures encountered after vertebroplasty, which has led to the development of low-modulus cements. However, there is no data available on the in vivo biocompatibility of any low-modulus cement. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of two types of low-modulus acrylic cements, one modified with castor oil and one with linoleic acid, were evaluated using human osteoblast-like cells and a rodent model, respectively. While the in vitro cytotoxicity appeared somewhat affected by the castor oil and linoleic acid additions, no difference could be found in the in vivo response to these cements in comparison to the base, commercially available cement, in terms of histology and flow cytometry analysis of the presence of immune cells. Furthermore, the in vivo radiopacity of the cements appeared unaltered. While these results are promising, the mechanical behavior of these cements in vivo remains to be investigated.